- all species listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Zoridae (Wandering Spiders)
Genus: Zora C. L. Koch, 1847
Characters of genus: The spiders of this genus have a narrowed carapace at the front and a characteristic dark compact eye group with both eye rows strongly recurved. Paired ventral spines are present on legs I and II, just like in the Liocranidae. All species are similar in general appearance, the general colour is yellow with a wide brown band extending back from each posterior lateral eye. The abdomen has a thin Y-shaped brown marking flanked by spots and irregular lines, overall the markings being very distinctive for the genus.
Zora alpina Kulczynski, 1915
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Zora armillata Simon, 1878
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Zora distincta Kulczynski, 1915
Range: Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Zora inornata L. Koch, 1882 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Zora manicata Simon, 1878
Range: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Ukraine, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Zora nemoralis (Blackwall, 1861)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Zora palmgreni Holm, 1945
Range: Finland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Zora parallela Simon, 1878
Range: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Zora pardalis Simon, 1878
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Zora prespaensis Drensky, 1929
Range: Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Zora silvestris Kulczynski, 1897
Description: The brown lateral bands on the carapace are of the same width or wider than the yellow bands. Also smaller than Z. spinimana and the general yellow colour is colder, making the species appearing more grey. Zora silvestris has three pairs of ventral spines on metatarsus i and II, whereas Z. spinimana only has two pairs. Size: Female 3.5-4 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: All year? Habitat: South facing heathland. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female, note only two pairs of spines on metatarsus (only one spine in each pair is visible).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Zora spinimana (Sundevall, 1833)
Description: The brown lateral bands on the carapace are narrower than the yellow bands (in Z. silvestris it is the other way round). Moreover this species is slightly larger than Z. silvestris and the general yellow colour has a warmer hue. Zora spinimana has three pairs of ventral spines on metatarsus i and II, whereas Z. silvestrisonly has two pairs. Size: Female 5-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Among low vegetation in a wide variety of situations. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female before oviposition.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.