- all species listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Theridiidae (Comb-footed Spiders)
Biology: The Theridiidae is the fifth largest spider family of the world encompassing ca 2280 species in 6 subfamilies and 96 genera. They are extremely variable in shape and colouration with some species appearing fairly robust (for example Steatoda) while other delicate (for example thin-legged species such as Ariamnes). They range in size from very small to medium-sized (1-22 mm body size). I consider the fine whip spider Ariamnes (Argyrodes) colubrinus a medium-sized spider despite a body length of 22 mm because of the whip-like, extremely elongated abdomen. Most theridiid species build irregular three-dimensional space webs with criss cross threads. Some species use a retreat, usually placed inside the web. The spider often sits inverted in the web or hidden in the retreat but will run for cover or drop from the web if disturbed. They overpower their prey by wrapping it with sticky silk by activity of the hind legs. These are provided with a comb of serrated bristles, which draw silk from the spinners and fling it over the prey. Only when the prey is securely wrapped in silk does the spider approach to bite. The prey is consumed in the retreat or at the part of the web where the spider usually takes up its position if no retreat is used. The wrapping technique enable theridiids to overpower prey many times their own size. A few species have more or less abandoned web building and live as active hunters at ground level, for example Steatoda phalerata. Some males possess ridges at rear of carapace opposed by teeth under the front end of the abdomen. Rapid movement of the abdomen while scraping the teeth against the ridges produce a sound, which is sometimes audible. The sound is used in courtship along with plucking and tapping the female web with palps and legs. The egg sacks are placed in the web or hidden inside the retreats and guarded by the female. Some females move the egg sacks to different positions during the day to optimize the climatic conditions.
Characters of family: The theridiids belong to a group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. They are often referred to as comb-footed spiders because tarsus IV of most species possess a row of slightly curved serrated bristles. This comb is visible with a lens in larger species. However, this comb is often difficult to discern in smaller species and males, even under the stereomicroscope. Other important diagnostic characters for the family include that the theridiids do not have the labium rebordered as opposed to the related families Araneidae, Linyphiidae, and Nesticidae. Also, they have few or no spines on their legs. Finally, the male palp is without a conspicuous paracymbium as in the Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Nesticidae, and Tetragnathidae. The carapace is very variable in shape among species, sometimes modified in males in to strange lobes not unlike those seen in the Linyphiidae. A few genera have rugose carapaces due to dense coverage of pits and warts, the latter sometimes hairy (for example Crustulina and Steatoda). In some species the carapace is almost circular and appears small relatively to the size of the abdomen. The clypeus is often very high. The sternum is triangular to shield-shaped (scutiform). It is domed in some species, for example in Theonoe minutissima. The eyes are sometimes subequal and sometimes of very different sizes. They are arranged in 2 rows of 4, the eyes of each row often equidistant. Lateral eyes are often situated close together or contiguous (for example Pholcomma and Theonoe). The secondary eyes are very often provided with a tapetum. The chelicerae are usually small and weak but some species with cheliceral apophyses may have long chelicers. Promargin with few teeth (0-3) while retromargin usually have none. The shape of endites is variable but usually they converge somewhat. The legs are moderately long to very long, lacking spines on femora, tibia, and metatarsus. The female palps possess a claw, which in the Hadrotarsinae subfamily is deeply clefted (palmate). The abdomen is very variable in shape from oval to round, sometimes globular or even higher than long. The abdomen sometimes extends over the posterior part of the carapace. In some species of the Argyrodinae subfamily the abdomen is extremely long and cylindrical. The colouration of the abdomen is also very variable as are the patterns. Some smaller species with unicoloured abdomens may resemble linyphiids. Species with sparsely haired abdomens often appear glossy. Colulus may be large and setose, small (represented just by the setae) or absent. The morphology of the colulus is often an important character in keys for theridiid genera. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. Theridiids are entelegyne usually with well sclerotized epigynes. Tibia and patella of male palp are without apophyses. The palp does not have a paracymbium - just a hook on distal margin of cymbium serving as a locking device. The anterior edge of the male palpal tibia is often widened and provided with a row of long setae (e.g. in Theridion).
Genus: Achaearanea Strand, 1929
Achaearanea dubitabilis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Achaeridion Wunderlich, 2008
Achaeridion conigerum (Simon, 1914)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Poland, Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Genus: Argyrodes Simon, 1864
Argyrodes argyrodes (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to West Africa, Seychelles (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Argyrodes incertus Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Argyrodes rostratus Blackwall, 1877
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Seychelles (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ariamnes Thorell, 1869
Ariamnes longicaudatus O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Lebanon (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Asagena Sundevall, 1833
Asagena brignolii (Knoflach, 1996)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Asagena italica (Knoflach, 1996)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Asagena meridionalis Kulczynski, 1894
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Asagena phalerata (Panzer, 1801)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Asagena pulcher (Keyserling, 1884)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Canalidion Wunderlich, 2008
Canalidion montanum (Emerton, 1882)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA, Canada, Alaska, Norway, Finland, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Carniella Thaler & Steinberger, 1988
Carniella brignolii Thaler & Steinberger, 1988
Range: Austria, Belgium, Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Belgium, Germany, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Chrysso O. P.-Cambridge, 1882
Chrysso nordica (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947)
Range: Hungary, Moldova, Russia (Eastern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary to Mongolia, North America (Platnick 10.0).
Chrysso spiniventris (O. P.-Cambridge, 1869)
Range: Netherlands (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sri Lanka to Japan (Europe, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Coleosoma O. P.-Cambridge, 1882
Coleosoma floridanum Banks, 1900
Range: Austria, Finland, France (Mainland) (introduced), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Netherlands (introduced), Switzerland (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Pantropical, greenhouses in Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Coscinida Simon, 1895
Coscinida tibialis Simon, 1895
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Pantropical (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Crustulina Menge, 1868
Characters of genus: The carapace is provided with pits and hairy warts and appears rugose. The eyes are subequal in size. The clypeus is very high - more than six times the diameter of an anterior median eye. Sternum also rugose and extended between coxae IV. The abdomen is globose. Colulus large and provided with two bristles. A stridulating organ is present.
Crustulina albovittata (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Crustulina guttata (Wider, 1834) - White-spotted comb-foot
Description: Carapace and abdomen dark reddish brown with a tint of purple. The abdominal markings are very characteristic in this species with white dots arranged in three longitudinal rows. The legs are fairly long and slender with clear annulations. Size: Female 1.9-2.2 mm; male 1.9-2.1 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Crustulina scabripes Simon, 1881
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Crustulina sticta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Cryptachaea Archer, 1946
Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Palp and epigyne.
Male.
Cryptachaea pusillana (Roewer, 1942)
Range: Portugal (Madeira)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: French Guiana (Platnick 10.0).
Cryptachaea riparia (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Cryptachaea veruculata (Urquhart, 1885)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Australia, New Zealand, England, Belgium (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Dipoena Thorell, 1869
Dipoena braccata (C. L. Koch, 1841)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Dipoena coracina (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland?, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena croatica (Chyzer, 1894)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena erythropus (Simon, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland?, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena latifrons Denis, 1950
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena lindholmi (Strand, 1910)
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena lugens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1909)
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (introduced), Portugal (Mainland)?, Spain (Mainland)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Britain (introduced from Portugal or Spain) (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Dipoena nigroreticulata (Simon, 1879)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena praecelsa Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena sedilloti (Simon, 1885)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena sericata (Simon, 1879)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena striata Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Dipoena umbratilis (Simon, 1873)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Dipoenata Wunderlich, 1988
Dipoenata cana Kritscher, 1996
Range: Malta (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Malta (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoenata canariensis (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Dipoenata flavitarsis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Dipoenata longitarsis (Denis, 1962)
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Echinotheridion Levi, 1963
Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male, note just one palp, the second palp has been self-amputated (emasculated).
Subadult male.
Genus: Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880
Enoplognatha afrodite Hippa & Oksala, 1983
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Romania, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha almeriensis Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha biskrensis Denis, 1945
Range: Spain (Mainland)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha caricis (Fickert, 1876)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is, Spain, Morocco to Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha franzi Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha gemina Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha giladensis (Levy & Amitai, 1982)
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Rhodes, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha intrepida (Sørensen, 1898)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Alaska, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Enoplognatha latimana Hippa & Oksala, 1982
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha macrochelis Levy & Amitai, 1981
Range: Cyprus, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Malta (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha mandibularis (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female with eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha mariae Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999
Range: Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete, Rhodes (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha mediterranea Levy & Amitai, 1981
Range: Cyprus, Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Turkey, Cyprus, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha mordax (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha nigromarginata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain to Greece, Morocco, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha oelandica (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha parathoracica Levy & Amitai, 1981
Range: Greece (Cyclades)?, Greece (Mainland)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Turkey, Israel, Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha penelope Hippa & Oksala, 1982
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha quadripunctata Simon, 1884
Range: France (Corsica), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Salvages, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Enoplognatha serratosignata (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Enoplognatha testacea Simon, 1884
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern, Central Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete)?, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Enoplognatha verae Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999
Range: Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Morocco, Spain, Tunisia, Italy, Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Episinus Walckenaer, in Latreille, 1809
Episinus albescens Denis, 1965
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Episinus algiricus Lucas, 1846
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Italy, Northwest Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Episinus angulatus (Blackwall, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male, palp.
Male.
Male.
Episinus cavernicola (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Croatia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia, Slovenia (Platnick 10.0).
Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England to Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Episinus maderianus Kulczynski, 1905
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Episinus theridioides Simon, 1873
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Corsica, Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Episinus truncatus Latreille, 1809
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Euryopis Menge, 1868
Euryopis chatchikovi Ponomarev, 2005
Range: Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis dentigera Simon, 1879
Range: France (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Spain (Mainland), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis duodecimguttata Caporiacco, 1950
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis episinoides (Walckenaer, 1847)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, China (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Euryopis flavomaculata (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Euryopis giordanii Caporiacco, 1950
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis haematostigma (Blackwall, 1864) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: England, Ireland (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis laeta (Westring, 1861)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Moldova, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Tajikistan (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis margaritata (L. Koch, 1867)
Range: Croatia, Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis mutoloi Caporiacco, 1948
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis orsovensis Kulczynski, 1894
Range: Hungary, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary, Asia Minor (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis quinqueguttata Thorell, 1875
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Euryopis saukea Levi, 1951
Range: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Euryopis sexalbomaculata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Macedonia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Eurypoena Wunderlich, 1992
Eurypoena tuberosa (Wunderlich, 1987)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Eurypoena tuberosa alegranzaensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hadrotarsus Thorell, 1881
Hadrotarsus ornatus Hickman, 1943
Range: Belgium (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Tasmania (Belgium, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Heterotheridion Wunderlich, 2008
Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Kochiura Archer, 1950
Kochiura aulica (C. L. Koch, 1838)
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European)?, Russia (Southern European), Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Cape Verde Is to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Lasaeola Simon, 1881
Lasaeola convexa (Blackwall, 1870)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Lasaeola oceanica Simon, 1883
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Lasaeola prona (Menge, 1868)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Lasaeola testaceomarginata Simon, 1881
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain to Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Lasaeola tristis (Hahn, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Tajikistan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805
Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841
Range: Belgium (introduced), Ireland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, 1870
Range: Belgium (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southeast Asia to Australia, New Zealand (Platnick 10.0).
Latrodectus lilianae Melic, 2000
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775)
Range: Belgium (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: probably North America only (Platnick 10.0).
Latrodectus revivensis Shulov, 1948
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to China (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Macaridion Wunderlich, 1992
Macaridion barreti (Kulczynski, 1899)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Genus: Melos O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 (Nomen dubium)
Melos bicolor O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Neospintharus Exline, 1950
Neospintharus syriacus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Cyprus, Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Lebanon, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Neottiura Menge, 1868
Neottiura bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1767)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Neottiura bimaculata pellucida (Simon, 1873)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Neottiura curvimana (Simon, 1914)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Neottiura herbigrada (Simon, 1873)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Madeira, to Israel, China, Korea (Platnick 10.0).
Neottiura suaveolens (Simon, 1879)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Neottiura uncinata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Nesticodes Archer, 1950
Nesticodes rufipes (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Czech Republic, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Pantropical (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Ohlertidion Wunderlich, 2008
Ohlertidion lundbecki (Sørensen, 1898)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Ohlertidion ohlerti (Thorell, 1870)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Paidiscura Archer, 1950
Paidiscura dromedaria (Simon, 1880)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: North Africa to Middle East, Cape Verde Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)
Range: Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Female, note pair of humps on abdomen.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Paidiscura pallens (Blackwall, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Paidiscura pinicola (Simon, 1873)
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Parasteatoda Archer, 1946
Characters of genus: Carapace slightly longer than wide. Eyes subequal. The anterior row is recurved while the posterior row is nearly straight. Clypeus about three time higher than diameter of anterior median eye. Abdomen of female is higher than long.
Parasteatoda lunata (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Female.
Parasteatoda simulans (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Parasteatoda tabulata Levi, 1980
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Parasteatoda tepidariorum (C. L. Koch, 1841) - Glasshouse comb-foot
Description: The carapace is yellowish brown to dark brown. The abdomen is greyish brown with indistinct whitish chevrons and streaks. Some specimens have blackish markings in the centre area of the dorsum. Male have uniformly coloured orange to reddish brown legs while females have darker annuli at the apical ends of segments. Males are generally more orange than females. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 3-4.5 mm. Maturity: Adult specimens are found at all seasons. Habitat: This spider is common spider in southern temperate regions but also inhabit greenhouses in cooler regions. Range: Austria, Belarus?, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Pholcomma Thorell, 1869
Pholcomma gibbum (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Male, note scutum on abdomen and characteristic embolus of palp.
Genus: Phoroncidia Westwood, 1835
Phoroncidia hankiewiczi (Kulczynski, 1911)
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Phoroncidia paradoxa (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Genus: Phycosoma O. P.-Cambridge, 1879
Phycosoma inornatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Phylloneta Archer, 1950
Phylloneta impressa (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female with spiderlings.
Female.
Female with spiderlings.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings (light colourform from Greece).
Female.
Phylloneta sisyphia (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female guarding eggsack.
Eggsack.
Phylloneta sisyphia foliifera (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Platnickina Koçak & Kemal, 2008
Platnickina nigropunctata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Platnickina tincta (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female, markings on sternum.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Genus: Rhomphaea L. Koch, 1872
Rhomphaea longicaudata O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Lebanon (Platnick 10.0).
Female (uncertain id).
Female (uncertain id).
Female (uncertain id - female not yet linked with male).
Female, epigyne (id?).
Female, epigyne in posterior view (id?).
Female, prosoma in lateral view (id?).
Rhomphaea nasica (Simon, 1873)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Africa, St Helena (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Rhomphaea rostrata (Simon, 1873)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Robertus O. P.-Cambridge, 1879
Biology: The species live at ground level in detritus, under stones, in moss, leaflitter. Sometimes also under algal upwash and in cracks in the ground.
Characters of genus: The species resemble linyphiids because of the small size of the species and their oval unicoloured abdomens in shades of grey. The head region of the carapace is darker than the thoracic region. The two eye rows are fairly wide with each eye almost contiguous with the corresponding eye of the adjacent row. The abdomen is provided with two or three pairs of pale or reddish sigilla (dots marking points of internal muscle attachments). Legs are relatively short and differ from those of the linyphiids by possessing a comb on tarsi IV and by the tarsi being darker than femora.
Robertus alpinus Dresco, 1959
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus arundineti (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871) - Fen leaden-colored comb-foot
Description: Carapace, legs and sternum reddish brown. The abdomen vary in colour from light to dark grey sometimes brownish grey. Patella and femora lighter than remaining leg segments. Size: Female 2.2-2.7 mm; male 2-2.3 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Juvenile with parasitic mite.
Juvenile.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Robertus cantabricus Fage, 1931
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus cardesensis Dresco, 1959
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus frivaldszkyi (Chyzer, 1894)
Range: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus fuscus (Emerton, 1894)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus heydemanni Wiehle, 1965
Range: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece (Crete), Romania, Russia (Central European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Germany, Austria, Romania, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus insignis O. P.-Cambridge, 1907
Range: Belarus, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Russia (NW. European), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus kuehnae Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut, 1993
Range: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus lividus (Blackwall, 1836) - Common leaden-colored comb-foot
Description: Carapace yellowish brown to dark brown usually distinctly darker in head region. Chelicers dark brown. Legs coloured as thoracic part of carapace with apical segments darker. Epigynal atrium large and shallow visible as a large dark area. Dorsum of abdomen in various shades of grey sometimes brownish grey. Sigilla usually reddish brown. Size: Female 3-4 mm; male 2.8-3.2 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Robertus lyrifer Holm, 1939
Range: Austria, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Iceland, Scandinavia, Austria, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus mazaurici (Simon, 1901)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus mediterraneus Eskov, 1987
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Romania, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus monticola Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus neglectus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus scoticus Jackson, 1914
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Robertus truncorum (L. Koch, 1872)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Robertus ungulatus Vogelsanger, 1944
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Ruborridion Wunderlich, 2011
Ruborridion musivum Simon, 1873
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Rugathodes Archer, 1950
Rugathodes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Rugathodes aurantius (Emerton, 1915)
Range: Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Rugathodes bellicosus (Simon, 1873)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Rugathodes instabilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Rugathodes madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Rugathodes pico (Merrett & Ashmole, 1989)
Range: Portugal (Azores) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Sardinidion Wunderlich, 1995
Sardinidion blackwalli (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Seycellocesa Koçak & Kemal, 2008
Seycellocesa pulchellus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Belgium, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Russia, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Seycellocesa vittatus (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Simitidion Wunderlich, 1992
Simitidion agaricographum (Levy & Amitai, 1982)
Range: Cyprus (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cyprus, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Simitidion lacuna Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Spain, North Africa, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Simitidion simile (C. L. Koch, 1836)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Steatoda Sundevall, 1833
Characters of genus: Many species of this genus have a light band along the anterior edge of the abdomen. Males are able to produce sounds during courtship by scraping teeth on the abdomen against a file on the rear of the carapace.
Steatoda albomaculata (De Geer, 1778)
Description: It is a beautiful, black spider with paired spots on the abdomen and a narrow band around the front margin. The colours of the markings are either white, pale yellow or pink. Habitat: Steatoda albomaculata occurs among stones or low vegetation in sandy places, usually south facing slopes. Often the web is built near a stone under which the spider can seek protection if disturbed. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female with a rather shrivelled abdomen due to recent egg-laying..
Male.
Dark female.
Subadult male abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Subadult male abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Steatoda albomaculata infuscata (Schenkel, 1925)
Range: Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda bimaculata (Menge, 1869) (Nomen dubium)
Global range: No data (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common false-widow
Description: The carapace is rugose, dark brown to black. Legs are reddish brown annulated with dark brown. The abdomen is brown sometimes blackish with characteristics whitish markings along the midline and anterior edge. Only rarely are these markings absent. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Habitat: Steatoda bipunctata is a common house spider, but is also sometimes found in forests, usually under loose bark on tree trunks. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Steatoda castanea (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Canada, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Steatoda distincta (Blackwall, 1859)
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda erigoniformis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Pantropical (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch, 1838) - False black widow
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Steatoda grossa obliterata (Franganillo, 1918)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda incomposita (Denis, 1957)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France, Gibraltar, Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda latifasciata (Simon, 1873)
Range: Italy (Sicily), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Morocco to Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Steatoda latrodectoides (Franganillo, 1913)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda maura (Simon, 1909)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Ireland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira, Canary Is (England, introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male. Note the ridges used for sound production at rear of carapace.
Male.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, eyes.
Female, tarsus IV with comb of serrated bristles.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Steatoda paykulliana (Walckenaer, 1805)
Range: Austria, Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Mediterranean to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile male, abdominal markings.
Juvenile male.
Juvenile male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Steatoda trianguloides Levy, 1991
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male (new to Europe?).
Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Theonoe Simon, 1881
Theonoe formivora (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Theonoe major Denis, 1961
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Theonoe mihaili (Georgescu, 1989)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Theonoe minutissima (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Theonoe sola Thaler & Steinberger, 1988
Range: Austria, Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Theridion Walckenaer, 1805
Theridion adrianopoli Drensky, 1915
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria, Greece, Crete, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion affine Wider, 1834 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion alveolus Walckenaer, 1805 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion auratum Blackwall, 1864 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Ireland (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion betteni Wiehle, 1960
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion bicolor Lucas, 1846 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion boesenbergi Strand, 1904
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Romania, Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion candefactum Walckenaer, 1842 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion carpathium Brignoli, 1984
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion cinereum Thorell, 1875
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion corcyraeum Brignoli, 1984
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corfu (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion crinigerum Simon, 1881
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Italy, Morocco, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion elimatum L. Koch, 1882
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion familiare O. P.-Cambridge, 1871
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Sardinia), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion furfuraceum Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Algeria, Syria (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion genistae (Simon, 1873)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean to Uzbekistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion gentile Simon, 1881
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion glaucinum Simon, 1881
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion grancanariense Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1944
Range: Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Madeira, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female, note the characteristic pair of white blotches on venter.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female, reddish specimen.
Female, reddish specimen.
Female, abdominal markings (dark specimen).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Theridion harmsi Wunderlich, 2011
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France, Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Theridion helena Wunderlich, 2011
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female (id?).
Female abdominal markings (id?).
Theridion hemerobium Simon, 1914
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: USA, Canada, Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Theridion histrionicum Thorell, 1875
Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion innocuum Thorell, 1875
Range: Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion italiense Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion kollari Doleschall, 1852
Range: Austria? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion laevigatum Blackwall, 1870
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion lapidicola Kulczynski, 1887
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion melanoplax Schmidt & Krause, 1996
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion melanostictum O. P.-Cambridge, 1876
Range: Cyprus, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Aldabra, Seychelles, China, Japan, USA, Hispaniola (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings (markings are variable among specimens).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831
Range: Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Epigyne.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Theridion mystaceum L. Koch, 1870
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Cocoon.
Theridion nasutum Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion nebulosum Hahn, 1831 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion negebense Levy & Amitai, 1982
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion ochreolum Levy & Amitai, 1982
Range: Cyprus (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion pallasi Ponomarev, 2007
Range: Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion palmgreni Marusik & Tsellarius, 1986
Range: Estonia, Finland, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Finland, Poland, Estonia, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion parvulum Blackwall, 1870
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sicily (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion petraeum L. Koch, 1872
Range: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion pictum (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Theridion pinastri L. Koch, 1872
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Theridion prominens Blackwall, 1870
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion pyrenaeum Denis, 1944
Range: Andorra, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Andorra (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion refugum Drensky, 1929
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Balkans, Bulgaria, Greece, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion semitinctum Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Balearic is (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion sibiricum Marusik, 1988
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Mongolia (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion tenellum C. L. Koch, 1841
Range: Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion tibiale Hahn, 1831
Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion tigrae Esyunin & Efimik, 1996
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion uhligi Martin, 1974
Range: Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Theridion undulatum Westring, 1861
Range: Moldova, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion varians Hahn, 1833
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Theridion varians melanotum Strand, 1907
Range: Germany (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion varians rusticum Simon, 1873
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Theridion wiehlei Schenkel, 1938
Range: France (Mainland), Germany, Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Theridula Emerton, 1882
Theridula gonygaster (Simon, 1873)
Range: Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Theridula opulenta (Walckenaer, 1842)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Thymoites Keyserling, 1884
Thymoites bellissimus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Finland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden, Finland, Russia, China (Platnick 10.0).
Thymoites oleatus (L. Koch, 1879)
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Tidarren Chamberlin & Ivie, 1934
Tidarren cuneolatum (Tullgren, 1910)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cape Verde Is., Canary Is., Africa, Yemen (Platnick 10.0).