- filtered for Portugal (Azores)
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Salticidae (Jumping spiders)
Biology: The family is species rich with most species occurring in warmer parts of the world. Almost all species can be assigned to genus level on the basis of their general appearance. However, identifying the spiders to species level of some genera require microscopic examination.
Characters of family: Small to medium-sized, shortlegged spiders easily recognizable by the characteristic eyes arranged in three rows. The anterior row of eyes is situated on a more or less vertical face, the medians being very large, the laterals somewhat smaller and set higher on the head. The second row of eyes consists of two very small, often minute or vestigial eyes set further back on the head. The two eyes of the posterior row are about the same size as the anterior laterals, and are set about halfway back on the carapace at the edges of the head. The anterior medians are highly sophisticated providing acute vision used to leap accurately while moving around as well as capturing prey and escape efforts.
Genus: Aelurillus Simon, 1884
Characters of genus: The genus Aelurillus is separated from the remaining salticid genera by the following combination of characters: ocular trapezium appreciably broader than long, tarsi of legs I and II with dense scopolae, and legs IV longer than legs III. The latter character separates the genus from Phlegra which has legs IV shorter than legs III.
Aelurillus balearus Azarkina, 2006
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Balearic Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Bianor Peckham & Peckham, 1886
Bianor albobimaculatus (Lucas, 1846)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Azores)?, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European)?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: South Africa, Mediterranean to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Chalcoscirtus Bertkau, 1880
Chalcoscirtus atratus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Chalcoscirtus infimus (Simon, 1868)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern, Central Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Cyrba Simon, 1876
Cyrba algerina (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Eastern European)?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Exuvium.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Euophrys C. L. Koch, 1834
Characters of genus: Spiders of this genus and the closely related genus Pseudoeuophrys have the combined length of patella and tibia of legs IV about 1.25 to 1.5 times longer than the combined length of these two segments on legs III. The species of the genus differ hereby form the former member Talavera aequipes, in which the combined lengths of patella and tibia is almost the same for legs III and IV. Unlike the genusNeon, the posterior row of eyes is situated in front of the middle of the carapace. The majority of the species are qiute colourful, especially the males have handsome markings making the easy to identify by general appearance alone.
Euophrys nigritarsis (Simon, 1868)
Range: France (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Evarcha Simon, 1902
Characters of genus: Medium-sized, stout spiders with the sexes usually very different in general appearance. The members of the genus are also very different, especially the males. The total length of patella and tibia IV is about the same or only slightly longer than that of leg IIII in contrast to the genera Sitticus, Euophrys and other related genera,.
Evarcha jucunda (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Belgium (introduced), Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany (introduced), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia?, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, introduced in Belgium (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Heliophanus C. L. Koch, 1833
Characters of genus: These are dark, blackish spiders, usually with metallic sheen in green, violet or coppery colours. Some species are furnished with white bands or spots on the abdomen composed of white squamose hairs. The palps of the females are ligth brown in contrast to the overall dark appearance of the spider. The male palps are dark but furnished with white squamose hairs on forward directed surfaces. Some species have legs in light yellow colours while other have dark legs with white squamose hairs.
Heliophanus auratus C. L. Koch, 1835
Description: Rather uniformly coloured dark spider with purple metallic sheen. There is only a faint white band anteriorly on the abdomen. The palps of the female are light brown, while those of the male are dark with white squamose hairs on the forward directed surface. The same type of white hairs are present on the legs, however less pronounced in this species than in other members of the genus. Size: Female 4.5-5 mm; male 3.5-4.5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Coastal boulders and shingle. Range: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Heliophanus stylifer Simon, 1878
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Morocco, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Heliophanus tribulosus Simon, 1868
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Genus: Icius Simon, 1876
Icius congener Simon, 1871
Range: Andorra, France (Corsica), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mendoza Peckham & Peckham, 1894
Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: North Africa, Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Menemerus Simon, 1868
Menemerus semilimbatus (Hahn, 1829)
Range: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is to Azerbaijan; Argentina (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839
Myrmarachne formicaria (De Geer, 1778)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, USA (introduced) (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Pellenes Simon, 1876
Pellenes arciger (Walckenaer, 1837)
Range: Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Phlegra Simon, 1876
Characters of genus: The genus is characterized by ocular trapezium nearly twice as broad as long, by tarsi I and II having scopulae and by legs IV shorter than legs III. One species occur in North Europe, including Denmark, with one further species in Central Europe.
Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe to Azerbaijan, Ivory Coast, Tanzania (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Phlegra simoni L. Koch, 1882
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands)? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Salticus Latreille, 1804
Salticus mutabilis Lucas, 1846
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Azores, Georgia, Argentina (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.