- all species listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Nesticidae (Comb-footed Cellar Spiders)
Biology: The common name for the family is comb-footed cellar spiders or scaffold web spiders. Most European species are found in south and southeast Europe, and only three species of Nesticus reach central Europe. One of these (Nesticus cellulanus) reaches as far North as Scandinavia. Eidmannella pallida is of North American origin, but has now become a cosmopolitan species, introduced to much of the world, however not northern Europe. The species of the family make irregular wide meshed cobwebs.
Characters of family: The spiders of the family Nesticidae are closely related to the Theridiidae (comb-footed spiders). Most specimens of both families have a comb of 6-10 serrated bristles on tarsus IV that are used to pull silk from the spinnerets. The Nesticids differ from the Theridiids by having a thickened edge on the anterior rim of the lower lip (rebordered labium), and by having longer legs, particularly the first pair. The legs are densely clothed with fairly long bristles, longer than in any theridiid. Leg spines are few, and differ only scarcely from the leg bristles. The eight eyes of the Nesticids are arranged in two rows of four.
Genus: Aituaria Esyunin & Efimik, 1998
Aituaria nataliae Esyunin & Efimik, 1998
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Canarionesticus Wunderlich, 1992
Canarionesticus quadridentatus Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Carpathonesticus Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980
Carpathonesticus avrigensis Weiss & Heimer, 1982
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus biroi (Kulczynski, 1895)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus borutzkyi (Reimoser, 1930)
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Turkey, Georgia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus cibiniensis (Weiss, 1981)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus fodinarum (Kulczynski, 1894)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus galotshkai Evtushenko, 1993
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus hungaricus (Chyzer, 1894)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus lotriensis Weiss, 1983
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus menozzii (Caporiacco, 1934)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus parvus (Kulczynski, 1914)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus paraavrigensis Weiss & Heimer, 1982
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus puteorum (Kulczynski, 1894)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus racovitzai (Dumitrescu, 1980)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus simoni (Fage, 1931)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Carpathonesticus spelaeus (Szombathy, 1917)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Eidmannella Roewer, 1935
Eidmannella pallida (Emerton, 1875)
Range: Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980
Nesticella mogera (Yaginuma, 1972)
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (introduced) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Azerbaijan, China, Korea, Japan, Hawaii, Fiji (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Nesticus Thorell, 1869
Characters of genus: This is the largest genus of the family. The majority are cave dwellers known from temperate areas. About 25 species are known from Europe. Clypeus is high and higher than the distance between the anterior and posterior medial eyes. The eyes are equal-sized. The anterior row is very slightly recurved while the posterior is procurved. Anterior medials are small and situated on a small lobe. Spiders of the genus is further characterised by having a large vestigial bump (colulus) in front of the spinnerets.
Nesticus arenstorffi Kulczynski, 1914
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus balacescui Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus beroni Deltshev, 1977
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus beshkovi Deltshev, 1979
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus carpaticus Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus cellulanus (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Carapace light yellow brown with irregular black median band and black margins. The maxillae are longer than broad and furnished with dense brushes of hairs. Sternum is uniformly light yellow-brown. The palpal organs of the male are of complex structure, and possess a well-developed, sickle-shaped paracymbium. The female palps possess a claw. Legs coloured as carapace, usually with clear black annulations. The leg tarsi have three tarsal claws. Tarsus IV with a ventral row of vaguely serrated bristles constituting a comb. The abdomen is conspicuously patterned dorsally, light olive green in colour with blackish rings or cells anteriorly. Posteriorly, there are some transverse blackish bars in the midline. The venter sometimes has blackish spots in front of the spinnerets. The female carries the whitish-yellow eggsack in the summer months attached to the spinnerets. Size: Female 4-5.5 mm; male 3.5-5 mm. Maturity: Adult males from April to July. Adult females mainly from May to September, but may be encountered all year. Habitat: Dark, damp places such as caves, cellars, wells, drains, under boulders, under overhanging vegetation along ditches, in dark places in forests, inside cavities of Carex tussocks in wetlands, etc. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Male.
Nesticus cellulanus affinis Kulczynski, 1894
Range: Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus cernensis Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus constantinescui Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus diaconui Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus eremita Simon, 1879
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Slovenia, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus fagei Kratochvíl, 1933
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Italy (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Montenegro (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus henderickxi Bosselaers, 1998
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus idriacus Roewer, 1931
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus ionescui Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus luquei Ribera & Guerao, 1995
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus lusitanicus Fage, 1931
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus morisii Brignoli, 1975
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus murgis Ribera & De Mas, 2003
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus obcaecatus Simon, 1907
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus orghidani Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus plesai Dumitrescu, 1980
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus sbordonii Brignoli, 1979
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus speluncarum Pavesi, 1873
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Nesticus wiehlei Dumitrescu, 1979
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Typhlonesticus Kulczyn'ski, 1914
Typhlonesticus absoloni (Kratochvíl, 1933)
Range: Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Montenegro (Platnick 10.0).