- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Lycosidae (Wolf Spiders)
Biology: The Lycosidae is the fourth largest spider family of the world encompassing ca 2320 species in 7 subfamilies and 107 genera. They range in size from small to very large (2.8-45 mm body size). Most species are hunting spiders at ground level using no web for catching prey. However spiders of a few genera such as Aulonia and Sosippus make sheet webs provided with a funnel retreat, very similar to the webs of agelenid spiders. Spiders of some lycosid genera make burrows in the ground lined with silk serving as retreats and a place for the females to guard their egg sacks, e.g. species of Alopecosa, Trochosa, and Arctosa. Spiders of the Pirata genus make silk tubes in vegetation where they spend part of their time. Many other lycosids never use a retreat but are found running about in grass, leaf litter, over sandy or stony areas, across the surface of water and many other places. Wolf spiders are often very noticeable as many are active during daylight hours running about in sunshine hunting prey on the ground or in low vegetation. The females of some species attach the globular egg sack to the spinners, which is then carried about. After the juvenile spiders emerge from the egg sack they will climb up on to the mothers abdomen making it appear much larger. The spiderlings will stay well protected on the abdomen for several days or even weeks. Eventually they disperse and start a life on their own.
Characters of family: The lycosids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are all dark in colour and arranged in three rows in a characteristic fashion. The anterior row has four small eyes set in a straight or slightly curved row, the second row has two large eyes further up on the on the vertical front, and the posterior row has two medium-sized eyes on the sides of the head which can be more or less steep sided. There are only few additional diagnostic characters of importance for the family, i.e. the lack of a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp and that the female of many species carries her egg sack attached to the spinners. The carapace is longer than wide with the head region narrowed and high. It is usually densely covered with hairs and often with longitudinal median or lateral bands or both. In some genera there are characteristic bars in the median band or elongate U-, Y-shaped marks. The sternum is oval to shield shaped (scutiform). The chelicerae are relatively strong with toothed cheliceral furrow and prominent lateral condyle (boss). The labium is a wide as long, about half the length of endites. Legs are spinose and provided with 3 tarsal claws, usually with scopulae for adhesion. The second segments of the legs (trochanters) are notched. The abdomen is oval, always covered with dense hairs. There is no colulus in front of the spinners. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. The epigyne is well sclerotized median septum which may be large and plate-like. The male palp is only rarely provided with a tibial apophysis. The tip of the male palp may have one or more claws.
This family is represented in Europe with 305 species in 26 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Acantholycosa (4), Allocosa (3), Alopecosa (64), Alopecosella (1), Arctosa (26), Aulonia (2), Caspicosa (1), Donacosa (1), Evippa (1), Geolycosa (1), Hogna (21), Hygrolycosa (2), Lycosa (26), Megarctosa (1), Mustelicosa (2), Pardosa (112), Pirata (15), Pyrenecosa (3), Schizocosa (1), Trabea (2), Trebacosa (2), Trochosa (8), Trochosula (1), Vesubia (2), Wadicosa (1), Xerolycosa (2).
Genus: Acantholycosa Dahl, 1908
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Acantholycosa lignaria, A. norvegica, A. norvegica sudetica , A. pedestris.
Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Genus: Alopecosa Simon, 1885 - Fox-spiders
Characters of genus: Alopecosa seconds Pardosa in species richness within the Lycosidae. Medium-sized to large spiders with clear median band on the carapace wider than the eye group. Legs are stout with some males having swollen tibia I. Abdomen with clear cardiac mark. The species can be grouped by the colour of the ventral surface which is black in some species and light-coloured in others. The females dig a burrow where they guard their egg sack.
There are 64 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Alopecosa accentuata, A. aculeata, A. albofasciata, A. albofasciata rufa, A. albostriata, A. alpicola, A. alpicola soriculata, A. alpicola vidua, A. artenarensis, A. azsheganovae, A. barbipes, A. barbipes oreophila, A. beckeri, A. canaricola, A. cedroensis, A. chiragrica (nomen dubium), A. cronebergi, A. cuneata, A. cursor, A. dryada, A. edax, A. etrusca, A. exasperans, A. fabrilis, A. fabrilis trinacriae, A. fuerteventurensis, A. fuscipes (nomen dubium), A. galilaei, A. gomerae, A. gracilis, A. grancanariensis, A. hermiguensis, A. hirtipes, A. inquilina, A. kalavrita, A. kulczynskii, A. kungurica, A. kuntzi, A. laciniosa, A. mariae, A. mariae orientalis, A. obscura, A. orotavensis, A. osellai, A. palmae, A. pentheri, A. pinetorum, A. psammophila, A. pulverulenta, A. pulverulenta tridentina, A. reimoseri, A. roeweri, A. schmidti, A. simoni, A. solitaria, A. steppica, A. strandi, A. striatipes, A. sulzeri, A. taeniata, A. taeniopus, A. thaleri, A. trabalis, A. trabalis albica.
Alopecosa accentuata (Latreille, 1817)
Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia?, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Alopecosa albofasciata (Brull, 1832)
Range: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, characteristic spots on venter.
Female.
Alopecosa barbipes (Sundevall, 1833)
Description: Female abdomen dark brown with sinuous pale median band. Lateral bands broken and indistinct except at sides of head. Abdomen with clearly outlined dark cardiac mark enclosed by a light median band with chevrons. The cardiac mark span the length of the two first chevrons. Ventral side light in contrast to most species having dark cardiac mark enclosed in pale band. Femora with clear annulations on femora, less clear on other segments. Male carapace similar to female, but with more contrast colours. Abdomen with pale median band flanked with dark spots, and without distinct chevrons as in the female. Legs without annulations, metatarsus, tibia and underside of femora of legs I black and furnished with dark hairs of uneven lengths. Tibia I distinctly swollen. Size: Female 8-12 mm; male 7.5-9 mm. Maturity: Spring to autumn. Habitat: Heathland with bare patches and dry grassland. Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia?, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia, Sweden, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Alopecosa cedroensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male (id?). Body length 6.5 mm, free part of embolus short and found on high ground (1350 m ) point to cedroensis.
Male (id?).
Male (id?).
Alopecosa cuneata (Clerck, 1757)
Size: Female 7-9 mm; male 6-7.5 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Alopecosa cursor (Hahn, 1831)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Alopecosa fabrilis (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Alopecosa fabrilis is a large wolf spider with stout legs and light colours. Size and the characteristic general appearance makes it relatively easy to identify the species in the field. Female carapace brown with sinuous median band and distinct lateral bands. Brown areas streaked with darker transverse lines. Abdomen with relatively large white spots. Ventral side black. Legs covered in light pubescence with darker spots and vague annulations where the pubescence is less dense. Male similar to female, but with pale areas lighter. Legs dark brown, and clothed with white pubescence. Femora with dark streaks and spots where pubescence is less dense or absent. Size: Female 13-16 mm; male 10-12 mm. Maturity: September to July. Habitat: Coastal dunes and sandy parts of dry heathers, at which sites the light colours provide excellent camouflage on bare sand. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male palp.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male, side of head.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Alopecosa gomerae (Strand, 1911)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male, sternum.
Male.
Female.
Male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Alopecosa inquilina (Clerck, 1757)
Description: This is the largest Alopecosa species occurring in Denmark. The clear markings of the carapace and abdomen are characteristic and enable easy identification in the field. The ventral side of the prosoma (coxa, sternum, labium og maxilla) are dark brown to black while the underside of the abdomen is soothy black. Female carapace with wide light median band broadened anteriorly and covering the entire eye region. Two dark spots are present at the rear of the carapace opposite two kidney shaped blotches on the abdomen. Further back on the abdomen, there are two more spots at the first pair of the rather faint chevrons. Male is slimmer than the female and with more contrasted markings. Tibia I is not darker than other leg segment, swollen or furnished with long dark hairs as in males of other Alopecosa species. Size: Female 14-15 mm; male 10-12 mm. Maturity: Females August-September until March-April, males August-september until October. Habitat: Forestedges and clearings with heather and blueberry. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female cephalothorax.
Female. Characteristic sooty-black venter.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Alopecosa kulczynskii (Bösenberg, 1895)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Alopecosa pinetorum (Thorell, 1856)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Alopecosa psammophila Buchar, 2001
Range: Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Czech Rep, Slovakia, Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757) - Common fox-spider
Description: Female carapace dark brown with a light median band that is pale brown anteriorly, then pale yellow and ends at an U-shaped dark marking posteriorly, with the bottom of the U pointing towards the abdomen. Lateral bands pale yellowish-brown, broken and irregular. Abdomen brown with dark brown, elongate cardiac mark outlined with thin blackish line. The cardiac mark is enclosed by a pale yellowish-brown median band. Sides of abdomen brown. Anteriorly on the abdomen there is another U-shaped drawing with the bottom pointing towards the carapace. Sometimes thin transverse lines connects paired white spots on the rear half of the abdomen. Legs dark brown with yellow-brown hairs and stout, dark spines. Male carapace with white median band in contrast to almost black sides, and with thin yellow-brown lateral bands. Abdomen with light median band that is lightest anteriorly, and with indistinct cardiac mark. Tibia I and inward segments very dark, on legs II only femora and inwards segments are darkened. Remaining segments brown as in the female. Size: Female 7-10 mm; male 5-8 mm. Maturity: Males May and June, females April-May to August-September. Habitat: Open sandy places such as heathland, dry grassland, coastal and inland dunes, dune plantations, and coastal foreland. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Alopecosa sulzeri (Pavesi, 1873)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female (uncertain species identification).
Subadult female.
Subadult male (uncertain species identification).
Subadult female.
Alopecosa trabalis (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Spiderling from back of female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Genus: Arctosa C. L. Koch, 1847 - Bear-spiders
Characters of genus: Medium-sized to large spiders characterized by a rather flattened carapace without clear median band, and with the eyes directed somewhat upwards. Most species lack longitudinal bands, and are well-camouflaged against the substrate. Legs with clear annulations or distinct spots. Males rather similar to females in general appearance. Depending on habitat, the species make burrows in sand, moss, detritus or under stones, but specimens are also frequently seen running about.
There are 26 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Arctosa alpigena, A. alpigena lamperti, A. brevialva, A. cinerea, A. cinerea obscura, A. excellens, A. figurata, A. fulvolineata, A. insignita, A. lacustris, A. leopardus, A. letourneuxi, A. lutetiana, A. maculata, A. maderana, A. misella, A. perita, A. perita arenicola, A. personata, A. pseudoleopardus, A. renidescens, A. similis, A. stigmosa, A. tbilisiensis, A. variana, A. villica.
Arctosa cinerea (Fabricius, 1777)
Description: Large, handsome and light coloured spiders with fairly dense white pubescence. Carapace yellow-brown but appear lighter because of the pubescence. There are two light spots at each side of the eyegroup due to areas with dense clothing of white hairs. Abdomen light brown or reddish with whitish areas where pubescence is dense. Cardiac mark whitish or yellowish, followed by vague chevrons and paired white spots. Legs yellow-brown with light annulations made of dense white hairs. Male very similar to female but slightly smaller and slimmer. Size: Female 14-17 mm; male 12-14 mm. Maturity: Autumn, winter and spring. Habitat: In Denmark this species seems to be confined to sandy and stony beaches. In Europe also sandy banks of rivers and lakes. Range: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Congo (Platnick 10.0).
Male abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Male.
Arctosa lacustris (Simon, 1876)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Arctosa leopardus (Sundevall, 1833)
Description: Carapace darkbrown and somewhat shiny. Sparsely clothed with golden hairs except for dense clothing in the fovea region. Some specimens possess light lateral bands composed of white hairs. Abdomen dark brown with yellow brown, rather elongate and narrow cardiac mark. Remaining areas of abdomen mottled with golden and grey hairs, except for small dark-brown areas where hairs are sparse or lacking. Legs brown with black annulations. Male and female very similar i general appearance. Size: Female 8-9.5 mm; male 6-7 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: In moss and detritus in mainly coastal marshes. Range: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Females.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Arctosa perita (Latreille, 1799)
Description: Carapace brown to black with white spots behind the posterior eyes followed by smaller spots which together constitute irregular and broken lateral bands. Abdomen gaudy and variable. Often with grey cardiac mark flanked by pink or orange red areas, followed by a pair of small white dots. Rear half with thin black transverse lines and a pair of large white spots followed by some smaller pairs. Legs with very distinct annulations, except for light tarsi. Size: Female 8-9 mm; male 7-8 mm. Maturity: September to June. Habitat: Open and bare sandy areas. In particular coastal dunes, inland dunes, heathland, wasteland and open forests. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Arctosa villica (Lucas, 1846)
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Aulonia C. L. Koch, 1847
Characters of genus: Only lycosids that build snares. It is a rather small sheet web with a tubular retreat.
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Aulonia albimana, A. kratochvili.
Aulonia albimana (Walckenaer, 1805)
Description: This species is easy to identify in the field due to the white palpal patella which contrasts markedly with the other brown palpal segments. Female carapace dark brown with thin lines at edges composed of white hairs. Rear half of carapace with thin median line made of goldenbrown hairs. The head protrudes somewhat from the thorax. Abdomen brown with white dots posteriorly. A thin white median line is often present in the cardiac area. Legs brown with the exception of the black femora I. Male very similar to the female, but with more contrasting colours making the black femora I more distinctive. Size: Female 3.5-4.5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Open, sunny, and usually sheltered places, such as forest edges, gardens, roadsides, etc. The species is often seen running about despite the fact that it build snares. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Hogna Simon, 1885
There are 21 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hogna balearica, H. biscoitoi, H. brunnea, H. canariana, H. ferocella, H. ferox, H. fraissei, H. graeca, H. heeri, H. hispanica, H. hispanica dufouri, H. ingens, H. insulana, H. insularum, H. maderiana, H. nonannulata, H. parvagenitalia, H. radiata, H. radiata clara, H. radiata minor, H. schmitzi.
Hogna radiata (Latreille, 1817)
Range: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central Europe to Central Asia, Central Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female head.
Female cephalothorax.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult male.
Genus: Hygrolycosa Dahl, 1908
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata, H. strandi.
Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Ohlert, 1865)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, spotted legs.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Lycosa Latreille, 1804
There are 26 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Lycosa alba, L. alba fulva (nomen dubium), L. albipunctata (nomen dubium), L. albonigra (nomen dubium), L. ambigua, L. bedeli, L. clarissa, L. dacica, L. granatensis, L. grisea (nomen dubium), L. isoscelica (nomen dubium), L. lanceolata, L. leireana, L. lupulina, L. macedonica, L. malacensis, L. narbonensis, L. narbonensis cisalpina, L. praegrandis, L. praegrandis discoloriventer, L. singoriensis, L. spiniformis, L. subhirsuta, L. tarantula, L. tarantula carsica, L. virgulata.
Lycosa praegrandis C. L. Koch, 1836
Description: Very large wolf spider with velvety appearance. The two sexes differ somewhat in size with males being considerably smaller than females. Also, males are more slender built and the legs are relatively longer than in females. The two sexes are fairly similar in colouration, except for the abdomen appearing overall brown in females while grey in males. Lateral bands of carapace pink to rusty brownish with quite characteristic sinuous blackish edges. Median band pale. Abdomen with clearly dark cardiac mark (except where lightened by whitish pubescence). The cardiac mark spans the length of the two first chevrons. The following chevrons are shorter and reduced to dark transverse markings at rear. Venter black. A very noticeable bright orange area is present around the spinners. Legs velvety, spotted with black except dorsally. Size: Female 30-35 mm; male 25 mm. Maturity: Perform final moult in autumn and winter as adult. Range: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Macedonia, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Pardosa C. L. Koch, 1847 - Thinlegged wolf spiders
Characters of genus: Pardosa is distinguished from other Lycosid genera by the height of clypeus being at least twice the diameter of a anterior lateral eye, and by the head having almost vertical sides when viewed from in front. Fairly small, slender species, usually with a light median band on the carapace. The genus contains a large number of species, many of which are both common and abundant. They are active during the day, and often very noticeable when running in the sunshine or basking in exposed places. Some species cannot be identified on the basis of the general appearance, and require microscopic examination of the genitals for proper identification.
There are 112 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pardosa acorensis, P. aenigmatica, P. aeronauta (nomen dubium), P. agrestis, P. agrestis purbeckensis, P. agricola, P. agricola borussica, P. agricola fucicola, P. alacris, P. albatula, P. albomaculata, P. amentata, P. atomaria, P. atrata, P. baehrorum, P. bernensis, P. bifasciata, P. blanda, P. buchari, P. cavannae, P. cincta, P. cribrata, P. cribrata catalonica, P. cribrata roscai, P. danica, P. drenskii, P. eiseni, P. elegans, P. evelinae, P. femoralis, P. ferruginea, P. frigida (nomen dubium), P. fulvipes, P. furcifera, P. fuscosoma, P. gefsana, P. giebeli, P. glacialis, P. groenlandica, P. hortensis, P. hyperborea, P. incerta, P. indecora, P. intermedia, P. invenusta, P. italica, P. jeniseica, P. jergeniensis, P. kratochvili, P. lapponica, P. lasciva, P. luctinosa, P. luctinosa marina, P. lugubris, P. maisa, P. masurae, P. mixta, P. monticola, P. monticola ambigua, P. monticola minima, P. monticola pseudosaltuaria, P. morosa, P. naevia, P. nebulosa, P. nigra, P. nigriceps, P. obscura, P. occidentalis, P. oksalai, P. olympica, P. oreophila, P. paludicola, P. palustris, P. palustris islandica, P. pertinax, P. plumipes, P. podhorskii, P. poecila, P. pontica, P. prativaga, P. prativaga scoparia, P. profuga, P. promptula, P. proxima, P. proxima poetica, P. pseudostrigillata, P. pullata, P. pullata jugorum, P. pyrenaica, P. riparia, P. saltans, P. saltuaria, P. saturatior, P. schenkeli, P. septentrionalis, P. sordidata, P. sphagnicola, P. subalpina, P. taczanowskii, P. tasevi, P. tatarica, P. tatarica saturiator, P. tenuipes, P. tesquorum , P. thorelli, P. torrentum, P. torrentum integra, P. trailli, P. vittata, P. vlijmi, P. wagleri, P. wagleri atra.
Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861)
Description: Variable in general appearance with some specimens resembling P. agricola and others P. monticola. A distinct race, P. agrestis purbeckensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1895, is sometimes elevated to species status. The two races have identical palps and epigynes, but differ in habitat requirements. Size: Female 6-9 mm; male 4.5-7 mm. Maturity: Females spring to autumn, males spring to summer. Habitat: Salt marshes, among low vegetation or bare mud-flats. Both races are found in this habitat, but while the halophilic P. agrestis purbeckensis is confined to the lower, salt-affected micro habitats P. agrestis is found at higher, less salty places as well as at inland sites. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female with egg sack.
Pardosa agricola (Thorell, 1856)
Range: Albania, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757)
Description: The female is rather dark with obscure markings. Median band on carapace with irregular width, usually broadened anteriorly and with indistinct borders towards the sides. Abdomen fairly uniform grey-brown, usually with two widely separated rows of white dots. Legs with clear annulations/markings along entire lenght, except tarsi. Male is much darker than the female, and with more contrasting markings. Palps black. Size: Female 5.5-8 mm; male 5-6.5 mm. Maturity: Females spring to autumn, males spring to summer. Habitat: In a wide variety of usually damp habitats such as riparian zones, damp meadows, forest clearings and gardens. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Pardosa atomaria (C. L. Koch, 1847)
Range: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Macedonia, Slovenia, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans, Cyprus, Rhodes, Aegean Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pardosa bifasciata (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pardosa cribrata Simon, 1876
Range: Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Romania, Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pardosa evelinae Wunderlich, 1984
Range: Poland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Pardosa furcifera (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Iceland (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Pardosa glacialis (Thorell, 1872) - Arctic wolf spider
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female with eggsack attached to spinners.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male palp.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Pardosa groenlandica (Thorell, 1872)
Range: Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: USA, Canada, Alaska, Greenland (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female spinners.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pardosa hortensis (Thorell, 1872)
Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pardosa hyperborea (Thorell, 1872)
Range: Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pardosa lugubris (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, hind leg.
Female.
Female with eggsack attached to spinners.
Female.
Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Female carapace with three thin and sharply outlined bands formed by dense white hairs. The median band narrows anteriorly. The two lateral bands are divided longitudinally by a dark stripe, and run almost parallel with the median band. Abdomen usually with a rather pale, but clearly outlined cardiac mark. The rest of the abdomen is mottled with dense brown and light hairs, sometimes with two rows of dark spots converging towards the spinners. Size: Female 4-6 mm; male 4-5.5 mm. Maturity: Females spring to autumn, males spring and early summer. Habitat: Open, usually dry and sparsely vegetated habitats, such as heather, dry grasslans and dunes. Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus?, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova?, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Pardosa nigriceps (Thorell, 1856)
Range: Belarus?, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) - Marsh wolf-spider
Description: Males and females rather similar in markings but males are darker than females. It should be noted that much of the patterns are due to coloured hairs which may fall off as the specimen gets older resulting in a generally darker appearance as specimen age between moults. The male carapace is dark reddish brown to blackish with distinct white median stripe tapering anteriorly. The submarginal bands are yellowish white due to partly coverage of whitish recumbent hairs. Legs are yellow brown with dark streaks on femora and inward segments. Dorsum of abdomen mottled in shades of dark greyish brown, laterally with more or less distinct white spots which may unite to form longitudinal lines. The cardiac mark is whitish. The lighter females have dark brown carapace and brownish abdomens with white markings more pronounced than in males. Legs are yellowish brown with dark spots on femora and inward segments. The female epigyne large and subtriangular. Size: Female 5.0-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Pardosa proxima (C. L. Koch, 1847)
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (introduced), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic, Canary Is, Azores (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Pardosa pullata (Clerck, 1757)
Description: This is a fairly slender species. Female almost uniform brown with very faint lateral bands on carapace. Headregion dark-brown to black. Male with light median band and clear cardiac mark. Legs brown without annulations. Size: Female 4-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: Females from april until early autumn, males mainly April and May. Habitat: In a wide variety of habitats. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female with egg sack.
Female with egg sack.
Pardosa saltans Tpfer-Hofmann, 2000
Description: Female with a clearly marked broad median band which reach the posterior medial eyes. The width of the band anteriorly equals the width of the posterior medials, while it tapers sligthly at rear of carapace. Lateral bands are indistinct or absent. Abdomen is mottled in brown, white and grey colours. Legs brown, ringed with white hairs, more clearly at basal segments. The male is much darker than the female. The carapace is almost blackwith the median band very distinct and without lateral bands. Abdomen black with a band of whitish hairs dorsally. Legs with dark femora, remaining apical segments brown. Palps black. This species was previously known as P. lugubris which has recently been split in to two separate species, of which P. saltans is a northernly species, replaced to the south by P. lugubris. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: Females spring to autumn, males spring to summer. Habitat: Dry, sunny places i forest and park habitats, such as forest edges, forest clearings, roadsides, parks and gardens. Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Pardosa sordidata (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pardosa sphagnicola (Dahl, 1908) - Peat-moss wolf-spider
Description: Male carapace dark brown to blackish. Brownish median stripe of golden hairs. Submarginal bands whitish. Edges of carapace brown. Legs brown, unevenly clothed with golden hairs. No annulations. Abdomen brown with some blackish spots and paired white dots. Tuft of white erect setae medially on front margin. Cardiac mark whitish. Venter pale with numerous dark tooth-like short hairs. Female is less clearly marked than males, sometimes appearing almost uniform brown except for tuft of white setae on front margin of abdomen. White median line on carapace indistinct or absent. Venter without tooth-like hairs. Legs uniformly brown. Dorsum of abdomen dark reddish brown with some darker patches and scattered white hairs. Cardiac mark sometimes golden brown, lighter than adjacent abdomen. At other times the colour of the cardiac mark match the colour of adjacent abdomen rendering it indistinct. Size: Female 5-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Pardosa tatarica (Thorell, 1875)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Pardosa wagleri (Hahn, 1822)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Pirata Sundevall, 1833 - Pirate wolf spiders
Characters of genus: Small to medium-sized spiders with light median band on the carapace enclosing a dark tune fork-shaped marking. This marking is very characteristic for lighter coloured species, but may be difficult to distinguish at darker species. The cardiac mark is usually lighter than the ground colour of the abdomen. Most species have the cardiac mark followed by paired bluish-white or white dots which usually are very striking. Some species also have light bands at the sides of the abdomen. The species construct vertical tubes in peat moss which are used as retreats, however much time is also spent running about. They are capable of running on water surfaces where they catch prey both above and under the surface. Some species, in particular P. piscatorius, resemble species of the Dolomedes (Pisauridae), which occur in similar habitats.
There are 15 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Pirata albicomaculatus, P. cereipes, P. hurkai, P. hygrophilus, P. insularis, P. knorri, P. latitans, P. piraticus, P. piscatorius, P. praedo, P. simplex, P. subniger, P. tenuitarsis, P. uliginosus.
Pirata hygrophilus Thorell, 1872
Description: Dark species with rather indistinct markings. Carapace with indistinct light lateral bands, outwardly followed by a darker band and finally a thin band along the edge of the carapace composed of ligth yellow-brown hairs. Sternum dark brown with light median band stretching about three-quarters sternum length. Legs with annulations on femora but overall rather dark. Abdomen mottled in various shades of brown and with indistinct cardiac mark. Paired white spots are rather indistinct in this species. Size: Female 5-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Damp places such as marshes and forest swamps. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Pirata latitans (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: Small species with narrow, protruding blackish head. Remaining carapace dark brown, sparsely clothed with fine light hairs. The genus specific tune fork-shaped marking on the carapace is indistinct due to the dark colouration. Legs dark brown. Abdomen appear almost uniform dark brown with the exception of the paired spots on rear half, and some vague light bands along sides. Male similar to female, but even darker, almost black. This sex has legs I darker than the rest. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 2.5-4.5 mm. Maturity: May to July. Habitat: Open, damp habitats such as bogs. Range: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European)?, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Female.
Pirata piraticus (Clerck, 1757) - Pirate otter-spider
Description: Carapace dark yellow-brown with median and lateral bands yellow-brown. Margins with thin white line composed of white hairs. The tune fork marking in the median band is distinct with the arms of the fork reaching the posterior medial eyes. Abdomen reddish-brown with yellow cardiac mark outlined by thin white lines converging at rear. White lines are also present at the sides of the abdomen as well as rear half is marked with paired white spots. Legs yellow-green to yellow-brown. Male similar to female but white lines around the cardiac mark are reduced or absent. Both sexes are furnished with dark spots on the sternum. Size: Female 6-9 mm; male 5-6.5 mm. Maturity: Males May to July, females until September. Habitat: Open or semi-shaded marshy areas with mostly stagnant water. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female with egg sack.
Female.
Pirata piscatorius (Clerck, 1757)
Description: Largest Pirata species with constrasting markings. Head region and abdomen with long hairs. The male may be mistaken for species of the Dolomedes genus. Female carapace dark brown with tune fork marking in light area behind the head. Lateral bands indistinct. A thin line of white hairs is present along the margin. Abdomen with yellow brown cardiac mark and paired white spots. Legs reddish-brown. Male carapace blackish with greenish-brown median band. The area between the forks in the tune fork-shaped marking is black. Typically there is a wide band along the margin densely clothed with white hairs. Abdomen with clear paired spots, and contrasting white bands along sides. Cardiac mark reddish-brown. Size: Female 6-10 mm; male 5-8 mm. Maturity: May to August. Habitat: Mainly peat bogs. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female with egg sack.
Male.
Pirata tenuitarsis Simon, 1876
Description: Resemble P. piraticus, a species it has been confused with in the past. However, P. tenuitarsus lacks the thin white lines at sides of cardiac mark which also is less distinct. The white paired spots and light bands a sides of abdomen are well-developed compared to those of P. piraticus. Legs greenish-brown without annulations. Size: Female 5-8 mm; male 4-6 mm. Maturity: May to August. Habitat: As P. piraticus but much rarer. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Pirata uliginosus (Thorell, 1856)
Description: Resemble P. hygrophilus but usually smaller. Female carapace blackish with dark greenish-brown median and lateral bands. Tune fork marking rather indistinct. White hairs along margins are reduced or lacking in this species. Abdomen dark brown with brown median band which contains vague chevrons towards the rear. The median band enclose a slightly darker cardiac mark with indistinct black borders at sides. Paired white spots distinctive. Leg dark greenish-brown with indistinct greenish-black annulations. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4-5 mm. Maturity: Spring to summer. Habitat: Damp, usually shaded areas such as woods. Often in drier places than other Pirata species. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Trabea Simon, 1876
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Trabea cazorla, T. paradoxa.
Trabea paradoxa Simon, 1876
Range: Albania, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Trochosa C. L. Koch, 1847 - Ground wolf spiders
Characters of genus: Robust spiders with a fairly dense clothing of the carapace with short hairs. Median band on carapace broadened anteriorly and enclosing two longitudinal, parallel dark bars. The females of the four species can be grouped in to two groups of two by the colour of the cardiac mark. Trochosa ruricola and the somewhat larger T. robusta are characterised by having the cardiac mark distinctly paler than the rest of the abdomen. The cardiac mark of the two other species, T. terrestris and T. spinipalpis is of the same colour as the general colour of the abdomen, and therefore rather indistinct. Male cardiac marks of the two latter species are often light and the colour in this sex is therefore not a reliable character in grouping species. However, adult males can be grouped by whether they possess a palpal claw, which is the case for T. ruricola and T. robusta. Males of all species with tibia, metatarsi and tarsi darkened on legs I. Nocturnal spiders that spend the daytime hidden in leaf litter, moss, etc. Females with eggsacks make a small burrow where they remain until the spiderlings emerge.
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Trochosa hispanica, T. hungarica, T. lucasi, T. ochracea, T. robusta, T. ruricola, T. spinipalpis, T. terricola.
Trochosa robusta (Simon, 1876)
Description: Largest species of the genus but there is some size overlap with T. ruricola. Markings very similar to the somewhat smaller T. ruricola, but the light median band is narrower and the longitudinal black bars are often less distinct. Male palpal tip has a relatively smaller claw than T. ruricola. Size: Female 11-18 mm; male 9-16 mm. Maturity: Autumn to early summer. Habitat: Dry chalk grassland and cliffs (also vertical surfaces) where the spiders spend the daytime hidden in cracks. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Male.
Female.
Male, abdominal markings.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Trochosa ruricola (De Geer, 1778)
Description: Female abdomen dark brown with pale median band broadened anteriorly, and enclosing two well-defined longitudinal black bars. Lateral bands and cardiac mark are of the same pale colour as the median band. Abdomen without clear markings and appear uniformly greenish-brown . Legs also greenish-brown. Male carapace darker than that of the female and with more clearly outlinedt and narrower median band. The claw at the male palpal tip is relatively larger than that of T. robusta. Abdomen dark brown with light cardiac mark. Legs greenish-brown as in the female, but with tibia, metatarsi, and tarsi of Legs I dark brown. Size: Female 9-14 mm; male 7-9 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: The species is common in Denmark at ground level in a wide variety of usually damp habitats. The species is often found in gardens where it is one of the largest wolf spiders. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Bermuda (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Trochosa spinipalpis (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1895)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male. Note the small cluster of spines on the palpal tibia facing the chelicerae.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Trochosa terricola Thorell, 1856 - Ground wolf-spider
Description: Female carapace dark reddish-brown with distinct pale median band enclosing longitudinal dark bars behind the posterior eyes. Cardiac mark of abdomen is outlined with a thin dark border but of the same colour as the rest of the abdomen and therefore somewhat indistinct. Behind the cardiac mark are some faint, dark chevrons and paired light dots. Legs reddish-brown with vague annulations on the femora. Male usually with paler cardiac mark. The male does not possess a palpal claw. Size: Female 10-14 mm; male 7-10 mm. Maturity: Males autumn to spring, females all year. Habitat: Slighly damp to dry places with partly shade, such as forest edges, open forests and grassland. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Xerolycosa Dahl, 1908
Characters of genus: The two European species in Xerolycosa resemble Pardosa saltans/lugubris somewhat in general appearance as the share similar median bands on the carapace. However, the heads differ in shape as the sides are not vertical in however, as Xerolycosa has gradual rounded sides as opposed to the vertical sides in Pardosa. Lateral bands are only present on the rear half of the carapace and are composed of light hairs that sometimes are partially or wholly rubbed off. Spiders of the Alopecosa also have broad median bands on the carapace but are larger and more robust, especially the legs are much stouter. Tarsi of legs each with four trichobothtria alternating in length.
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Xerolycosa miniata, X. nemoralis.
Xerolycosa miniata (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westring, 1861)
Description: Female carapace appear subcircular when viewed from above. With clear pinkish-brownish median band, widest behind the posterior eyes and slightly tapering towards the front and rear. Abdomen greyish-pinkish brown with vague dark chevrons and two rows of white dots. Front of abdomen with dark area in each side. Legs greyish-pinkish brown with dark annulations, most clearly on the femora. Male carapace with pale pinkish-brown median band not differing much in width along length. Lateral bands are indistinct and of the same colour as the median band. They are only present on rear half of carapace if not absent alltogther. Abdomen pinkish brown with lighter median band and with dark areas in each side anteriorly. Legs pale pinkish-grey with tibia I densely covered by fine white hairs. Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Females summer and autumn, males summer. Habitat: Heathland, dry grassland and forest edges/clearings usually on dry, sandy soil. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.