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Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Liocranidae (Spiny-legged Sac Spiders)
Genus: Agroeca Westring, 1861
Characters of genus: The carapace usually with clear markings in the shape of characteristic angular loops radiating from the fovea. The abdomen with vague v- or w-shaped pattern or dark oblique spots or bars arranged in rows. The posterior row of eyes markedly procurved. Metatarsus I and II with three pairs of ventral spines. The Danish species can be identified in the field by their bodycolour and size.
Agroeca brunnea (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: The largest species of the genus. Carapace reddish-brown with golden hairs, and dark markings. Abdomen golden reddish-brown somewhat shiny. Similar to A. proxima which overlap in habitat but is smaller. The eggsacks are very characteristic and look like small inverted wineglasses placed in the vegetation, and are encountered more frequently than the spider itself. The eggsacks may be snowy-white or camouflaged with earth, thereby much less conspiceous. Size: Female 7-8 mm; male 6-7 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Damp or dry places with low vegetation, usually near or within forests, sometimes also moors and grassland. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Apostenus Westring, 1851
Apostenus fuscus Westring, 1851
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Liocranum L. Koch, 1866
Characters of genus: These spiders are the largest representatives of the family in the region. The eye group is wider than in tte remaining genera and therefore the spiders resemble species of Clubionidae.
Liocranum rupicola (Walckenaer, 1830)
Description: Carapace is purplereddish-brown with dentate lateral bands and dark margins. The abdomen is of the same colour with a dark grey cardiac mark followed by chevrons all of which are flanked with dark spots. Legs are greyish-brown annulated with dark grey. Size: Female 6-8.5 mm; male 5.5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and autumn. Habitat: Under stones in dry conditions. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Mesiotelus Simon, 1897
Mesiotelus annulipes (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary, Balkans, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Sagana Thorell, 1875
Sagana rutilans Thorell, 1875
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).