- filtered for Croatia
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Liocranidae (Spiny-legged Sac Spiders)
Genus: Apostenus Westring, 1851
Apostenus fuscus Westring, 1851
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Liocranum L. Koch, 1866
Characters of genus: These spiders are the largest representatives of the family in the region. The eye group is wider than in tte remaining genera and therefore the spiders resemble species of Clubionidae.
Liocranum perarmatum Kulczynski, 1897
Range: Croatia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovenia, Croatia (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum rupicola (Walckenaer, 1830)
Description: Carapace is purplereddish-brown with dentate lateral bands and dark margins. The abdomen is of the same colour with a dark grey cardiac mark followed by chevrons all of which are flanked with dark spots. Legs are greyish-brown annulated with dark grey. Size: Female 6-8.5 mm; male 5.5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and autumn. Habitat: Under stones in dry conditions. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Mesiotelus Simon, 1897
Mesiotelus annulipes (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary, Balkans, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus tenuissimus (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Sagana Thorell, 1875
Sagana rutilans Thorell, 1875
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Scotina Menge, 1873
Characters of genus: These are small spiders with six to ten pairs of ventral spines easily visible with a lens. The cephalothorax is darker than in the other genera of the family and shiny. The species are found at ground level among moss and detritus. The femora of the legs are light brown while more distal segments are darkened, particularly for the first pairs of legs. The two Danish species are easily separable by their markings.
Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: The male has much smaller abdomen than the female, and is therefore overall smaller. The cephalothorax has characteristic light median and lateral bands, and may at distance resemble immature Lycosids of the genus Pardosa. The abdomen is reddish-brown, and the markings are typical of the Liocranidae, with grey chevrons. These are however, rather obscure for the male. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Maturity: Males in autumn, females all year? Habitat: Damp moss, leaf litter and tussocks on juniper heathland, forest edges and forest clearings. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Algeria, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotina gracilipes (Blackwall, 1859)
Description: Carapace with same markings as S. celans with median and lateral bands. However, these bands are much darker and the carapace appear uniform dark.Carapace is somewhat shinier than that of S. celans. The abdomen is also darker with obscure chevrons. The colouration of the legs are also generally similar to that of S. celans but the dark segments are darker, almost black in legs I and II, as well as shinier. Rear legs have annulated appearance. Size: 2.5-3.5 mm. Maturity: Males late summer and autumn, females throughout year. Habitat: Dry sandy places such as coastal and inland dunes and heathland. Range: Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.