- filtered for Great Britain (Mainland)
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Liocranidae (Spiny-legged Sac Spiders)
Genus: Agroeca Westring, 1861
Characters of genus: The carapace usually with clear markings in the shape of characteristic angular loops radiating from the fovea. The abdomen with vague v- or w-shaped pattern or dark oblique spots or bars arranged in rows. The posterior row of eyes markedly procurved. Metatarsus I and II with three pairs of ventral spines. The Danish species can be identified in the field by their bodycolour and size.
Agroeca brunnea (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: The largest species of the genus. Carapace reddish-brown with golden hairs, and dark markings. Abdomen golden reddish-brown somewhat shiny. Similar to A. proxima which overlap in habitat but is smaller. The eggsacks are very characteristic and look like small inverted wineglasses placed in the vegetation, and are encountered more frequently than the spider itself. The eggsacks may be snowy-white or camouflaged with earth, thereby much less conspiceous. Size: Female 7-8 mm; male 6-7 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Damp or dry places with low vegetation, usually near or within forests, sometimes also moors and grassland. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca dentigera Kulczynski, 1913
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca inopina O. P.-Cambridge, 1886
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca lusatica (L. Koch, 1875)
Description: Agroeca lusatica is slightly larger than its close relative Agroeca proxima, which is found in the same habitat however usually slightly further inland. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Autumn. Habitat: In Denmark this species is only known from coastal dunes. In Europe it is also associated with woodland. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Agroeca proxima (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: Rather similar to A. brunnea but smaller. The eggsack is much narrower than that of A. brunnea. Size: Female 5.5-7.5 mm; male 4-5.5 mm. Habitat: Primarily heather and coastal dunes, but sometimes also in the same habitat as A. brunnea. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Genus: Apostenus Westring, 1851
Apostenus fuscus Westring, 1851
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Liocranoeca Wunderlich, 1999
Liocranoeca striata (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Genus: Liocranum L. Koch, 1866
Characters of genus: These spiders are the largest representatives of the family in the region. The eye group is wider than in tte remaining genera and therefore the spiders resemble species of Clubionidae.
Liocranum rupicola (Walckenaer, 1830)
Description: Carapace is purplereddish-brown with dentate lateral bands and dark margins. The abdomen is of the same colour with a dark grey cardiac mark followed by chevrons all of which are flanked with dark spots. Legs are greyish-brown annulated with dark grey. Size: Female 6-8.5 mm; male 5.5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and autumn. Habitat: Under stones in dry conditions. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Scotina Menge, 1873
Characters of genus: These are small spiders with six to ten pairs of ventral spines easily visible with a lens. The cephalothorax is darker than in the other genera of the family and shiny. The species are found at ground level among moss and detritus. The femora of the legs are light brown while more distal segments are darkened, particularly for the first pairs of legs. The two Danish species are easily separable by their markings.
Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: The male has much smaller abdomen than the female, and is therefore overall smaller. The cephalothorax has characteristic light median and lateral bands, and may at distance resemble immature Lycosids of the genus Pardosa. The abdomen is reddish-brown, and the markings are typical of the Liocranidae, with grey chevrons. These are however, rather obscure for the male. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Maturity: Males in autumn, females all year? Habitat: Damp moss, leaf litter and tussocks on juniper heathland, forest edges and forest clearings. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Algeria, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotina gracilipes (Blackwall, 1859)
Description: Carapace with same markings as S. celans with median and lateral bands. However, these bands are much darker and the carapace appear uniform dark.Carapace is somewhat shinier than that of S. celans. The abdomen is also darker with obscure chevrons. The colouration of the legs are also generally similar to that of S. celans but the dark segments are darker, almost black in legs I and II, as well as shinier. Rear legs have annulated appearance. Size: 2.5-3.5 mm. Maturity: Males late summer and autumn, females throughout year. Habitat: Dry sandy places such as coastal and inland dunes and heathland. Range: Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotina palliardii (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).