- all species listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Liocranidae (Spiny-legged Sac Spiders)
Genus: Agraecina Simon, 1932
Agraecina canariensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Agraecina cristiani (Georgescu, 1989)
Range: Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Romania (Platnick 10.0).
Agraecina hodna Bosmans, 1999
Range: Macedonia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Algeria, Macedonia (Platnick 10.0).
Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878)
Range: Belgium, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Agroeca Westring, 1861
Characters of genus: The carapace usually with clear markings in the shape of characteristic angular loops radiating from the fovea. The abdomen with vague v- or w-shaped pattern or dark oblique spots or bars arranged in rows. The posterior row of eyes markedly procurved. Metatarsus I and II with three pairs of ventral spines. The Danish species can be identified in the field by their bodycolour and size.
Agroeca annulipes Simon, 1878
Range: France (Corsica), Italy (Sardinia), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Morocco, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca brunnea (Blackwall, 1833)
Description: The largest species of the genus. Carapace reddish-brown with golden hairs, and dark markings. Abdomen golden reddish-brown somewhat shiny. Similar to A. proxima which overlap in habitat but is smaller. The eggsacks are very characteristic and look like small inverted wineglasses placed in the vegetation, and are encountered more frequently than the spider itself. The eggsacks may be snowy-white or camouflaged with earth, thereby much less conspiceous. Size: Female 7-8 mm; male 6-7 mm. Maturity: All year. Habitat: Damp or dry places with low vegetation, usually near or within forests, sometimes also moors and grassland. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca dentigera Kulczynski, 1913
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca gaunitzi Tullgren, 1952
Range: Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sweden (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca inopina O. P.-Cambridge, 1886
Range: Belgium, Bulgaria, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca lusatica (L. Koch, 1875)
Description: Agroeca lusatica is slightly larger than its close relative Agroeca proxima, which is found in the same habitat however usually slightly further inland. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Autumn. Habitat: In Denmark this species is only known from coastal dunes. In Europe it is also associated with woodland. Range: Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Agroeca maculata L. Koch, 1879
Range: Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca makarovae Esyunin, 2008
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Agroeca proxima (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)
Description: Rather similar to A. brunnea but smaller. The eggsack is much narrower than that of A. brunnea. Size: Female 5.5-7.5 mm; male 4-5.5 mm. Habitat: Primarily heather and coastal dunes, but sometimes also in the same habitat as A. brunnea. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Genus: Apostenus Westring, 1851
Apostenus annulipedes Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Apostenus fuscus Westring, 1851
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Apostenus gomerensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Apostenus grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Apostenus humilis Simon, 1932
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Apostenus ochraceus Hadjissarantos, 1940
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Apostenus palmensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Brachyanillus Simon, 1913
Brachyanillus liocraninus Simon, 1913
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Cybaeodes Simon, 1878
Cybaeodes avolensis Platnick & Di Franco, 1992
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sicily (Platnick 10.0).
Cybaeodes madidus Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Cybaeodes mallorcensis Wunderlich, 2008
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Cybaeodes marinae Di Franco, 1989
Range: Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Cybaeodes molara (Roewer, 1960)
Range: Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sicily (Platnick 10.0).
Cybaeodes sardus Platnick & Di Franco, 1992
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Cybaeodes testaceus Simon, 1878
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Liocranoeca Wunderlich, 1999
Liocranoeca spasskyi Ponomarev, 2007
Range: Russia (Southern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranoeca striata (Kulczynski, 1882)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Liocranoeca striata gracilior (Kulczynski, 1898)
Range: Germany, Hungary, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Germany, Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Liocranum L. Koch, 1866
Characters of genus: These spiders are the largest representatives of the family in the region. The eye group is wider than in tte remaining genera and therefore the spiders resemble species of Clubionidae.
Liocranum apertum Denis, 1960
Range: France (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum concolor Simon, 1878
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum giersbergi Kraus, 1955
Range: Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Sardinia (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum inornatum (L. Koch, 1882)
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mallorca (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Liocranum kochi Herman, 1879
Range: Hungary, Slovakia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum majus Simon, 1878
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum ochraceum L. Koch, 1867
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corfu (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum perarmatum Kulczynski, 1897
Range: Croatia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovenia, Croatia (Platnick 10.0).
Liocranum rupicola (Walckenaer, 1830)
Description: Carapace is purplereddish-brown with dentate lateral bands and dark margins. The abdomen is of the same colour with a dark grey cardiac mark followed by chevrons all of which are flanked with dark spots. Legs are greyish-brown annulated with dark grey. Size: Female 6-8.5 mm; male 5.5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and autumn. Habitat: Under stones in dry conditions. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Liocranum segmentatum Simon, 1878
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Macedoniella Drensky, 1935
Macedoniella karamani Drensky, 1935 (Nomen dubium)
Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Mesiotelus Simon, 1897
Mesiotelus annulipes (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary, Balkans, Turkey (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus cyprius Kulczynski, 1908
Range: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cyprus (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus cyprius scopensis Drensky, 1935
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1992
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus maderianus Kulczynski, 1899
Range: Portugal (Madeira) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Madeira (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus mauritanicus Simon, 1909
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus tenellus (Thorell, 1875)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Mesiotelus tenuissimus (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Turkmenistan (Platnick 10.0).
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Mesiotelus viridis (L. Koch, 1867)
Range: Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Sagana Thorell, 1875
Sagana rutilans Thorell, 1875
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Scotina Menge, 1873
Characters of genus: These are small spiders with six to ten pairs of ventral spines easily visible with a lens. The cephalothorax is darker than in the other genera of the family and shiny. The species are found at ground level among moss and detritus. The femora of the legs are light brown while more distal segments are darkened, particularly for the first pairs of legs. The two Danish species are easily separable by their markings.
Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841)
Description: The male has much smaller abdomen than the female, and is therefore overall smaller. The cephalothorax has characteristic light median and lateral bands, and may at distance resemble immature Lycosids of the genus Pardosa. The abdomen is reddish-brown, and the markings are typical of the Liocranidae, with grey chevrons. These are however, rather obscure for the male. Size: Female 4-5 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Maturity: Males in autumn, females all year? Habitat: Damp moss, leaf litter and tussocks on juniper heathland, forest edges and forest clearings. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Algeria, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotina gracilipes (Blackwall, 1859)
Description: Carapace with same markings as S. celans with median and lateral bands. However, these bands are much darker and the carapace appear uniform dark.Carapace is somewhat shinier than that of S. celans. The abdomen is also darker with obscure chevrons. The colouration of the legs are also generally similar to that of S. celans but the dark segments are darker, almost black in legs I and II, as well as shinier. Rear legs have annulated appearance. Size: 2.5-3.5 mm. Maturity: Males late summer and autumn, females throughout year. Habitat: Dry sandy places such as coastal and inland dunes and heathland. Range: Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotina occulta Kritscher, 1996
Range: Malta (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Malta (Platnick 10.0).
Scotina palliardii (L. Koch, 1881)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).