- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Gnaphosidae (Ground Spiders)
Biology: The Gnaphosidae is the seventh largest spider family of the world encompassing ca. 2000 species in 8 subfamilies and 114 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-18 mm body size). The species are free-living found mailnly at ground level in open habitats but some species are house spiders, for example Scotophaeus blackwalli in the northern parts of its distributional range. They build a tubular retreat, from which they leave at night to hunt prey. The female guard her papery egg sack hidden in small holes under logs, stones, etc. Most species are active at night, however spiders of the somewhat atypical genus Micaria are diurnal hunters running rapidly about in bright sunshine.
Characters of family: The gnaphosids are rather stout ecribellate spiders with a flattened and elongate abdomen. The carapace is ovoid and rather low being smoothly convex and with a distinct fovea in most species. The head is not sharply set off from the thoracic region. Gnaphosids are fairly easily recognized by their cylindrical and parallel spinners, the anterior pair being slightly longer, and more heavily sclerotized than the posterior pair. The anterior spinners are separated from each other by approximately one spinner diameter with some exceptions, e.g. Micaria in which genus anterior spinners are closer. They have 8 eyes in 2 rows. The posterior medial eyes are often not round, but oval, triangular or reduced to slits. All eyes are with a silvery sheen except for the anterior medials, which are dark. The sternum is ovoid, pointed posteriorly. The chelicerae are robust, and the fang furrows are provided with teeth. The retromargin may have a sclerotized lamina (flat, keel-like plate) in place of teeth. This lamina is serrated in some genera. The curvature of the posterior row of eyes and the position and shape of cheliceral lamina and teeth are important characters when keying gnaphosids to genus level under the stereomicroscope. The endites usually have an oblique or transverse depression. They are provided with a serrula (row or cluster of tiny teeth on the front margin). Gnaphosids are also characterized by having 2 tarsal claws, claw tufts, and scopulae. Legs are stout and in some species there are small brushes of more and less stiff hairs present distally on metatarsus IV. Female palp is furnished with small spines and a finely toothed claw. The abdomen is often provided with dense coverage of short sleek hairs giving the abdomen a mousy-like appearance. Sometimes erect, curved setae are present, particularly at the anterior edge (see for example images of Gnaphosa lucifuga). Many species are uniformly coloured in greyish-brown or blackish colours. However, abdomens of some species have striking white patterns of spots or lines while abdomens of others are iridescent. Most males have a scutum at the anterior end. The spiracle is situated close to the spinners. Gnaphosids are entelegyne spiders often having rather large epigynes with sclerotized structures. They are somewhat variable and closely related species may be difficult to identify. Male palps are usually provided with a large tibial apophysis and the shape of this is important when identifying the species.
This family is represented in Europe with 447 species in 37 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Anagraphis (2), Aphantaulax (4), Berinda (3), Berlandina (8), Callilepis (5), Camillina (2), Cesonia (1), Cryptodrassus (2), Drassodes (54), Drassodex (6), Drassyllus (10), Echemus (3), Gnaphosa (62), Haplodrassus (24), Kishidaia (2), Leptodrassex (2), Leptodrassus (8), Macarophaeus (4), Micaria (34), Minosia (1), Nomisia (14), Nomisiella (2), Parasyrisca (2), Phaeocedus (2), Poecilochroa (11), Pterotricha (8), Pterotrichina (1), Scotognapha (13), Scotophaeus (20), Setaphis (7), Sidydrassus (1), Sosticus (1), Synaphosus (3), Talanites (2), Trachyzelotes (13), Urozelotes (3), Zelominor (2), Zelotes (107).
Genus: Anagraphis Simon, 1893
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Anagraphis pallens, A. pallida.
Anagraphis pallida (Hadjissarantos, 1940)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Aphantaulax Simon, 1878
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Aphantaulax albini, A. cincta, A. trifasciata, A. trifasciata trimaculata.
Aphantaulax trifasciata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Andorra, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Genus: Berlandina Dalmas, 1922
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Berlandina caspica, B. charitonovi, B. cinerea, B. corcyraea, B. nubivaga, B. plumalis, B. shumskyi, B. spasskyi.
Berlandina cinerea (Menge, 1872)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Berlandina corcyraea (O. P.-Cambridge, 1874)
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Corfu (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Callilepis Westring, 1874
There are 5 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Callilepis cabriolata, C. concolor, C. cretica, C. nocturna, C. schuszteri.
Callilepis nocturna (Linnaeus, 1758)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Drassodes Westring, 1851
Characters of genus: The abdomen has dense short hairs making the spiders appear mousy. These spiders are mostly reddish-brown to greyish-brown, and resemble spiders from the Clubionidae. However, the spinners are tubular as characteristic of the Gnaphosidae. The members of the genus are distinguished from other gnaphosids by the deeply notched trochanters. The posterior medial eyes are oval. Males have no scutum.
There are 54 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Drassodes acrotirius, D. albicans, D. alexandrinus, D. assimilatus, D. auritus, D. bidentatus (nomen dubium), D. canaglensis, D. cephalotes (nomen dubium), D. charcoviae, D. chybyndensis, D. collingsiae (nomen dubium), D. cupreus, D. decorus (nomen dubium), D. difficilis, D. ferrugineus (nomen dubium), D. fugax, D. lacertosus, D. lapidosus, D. lapidosus bidens, D. licenti, D. luteomicans, D. lutescens, D. mandibularis, D. montandonii (nomen dubium), D. montanus (nomen dubium), D. montenegrinus, D. murinus (nomen dubium), D. myogaster, D. natali, D. omalosis, D. oreinos, D. orientalis, D. paroculus, D. parvicorpus, D. pavesii (nomen dubium), D. placidulus, D. platnicki, D. pubescens, D. reticulatus, D. rhodanicus, D. riedeli, D. rostratus, D. rubidus, D. rufus, D. rugichelis, D. rugulosus (nomen dubium), D. saussurei (nomen dubium), D. serratichelis, D. serratidens, D. striatus, D. thimei, D. unicolor, D. villosus, D. voigti.
Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall, 1834)
Description: Very similar to D. lapidosus. The cephalothorax has a dark borderline. Size: 9-18 mm. Maturity: Females throughout year, males in spring and summer. Habitat: Dry places, such as heather, gravel beds, dunes and dry grassland. Spiders can be found in their retreats by turning stones or searching leaf litter, moss, grass tussucks etc. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdomen.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Drassodes lapidosus (Walckenaer, 1802)
Size: 9-18 mm. Maturity: Females throughout year, males in spring and summer. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female abdomen.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female with egg cocoon.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Drassodes lutescens (C. L. Koch, 1839)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Pakistan (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdomen.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female abdomen with parasitic mites.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Drassodes omalosis Roewer, 1928
Range: Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Not recognized as a species (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female, epigyne.
Drassodes pubescens (Thorell, 1856)
Description: Similar in general appearance to the other two species of the genus, however slightly paler. The relatively small size of the adults ease species identification. Size: Female 6-8 mm; male 5-7 mm. Maturity: Spring and early summer. Habitat: Dry or somewhat moist habitats such as heather, forest edges and open forests. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Drassodex Murphy, 2007
There are 6 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Drassodex cervinus, D. fritillifer, D. heeri, D. hispanus, D. hispanus lesserti, D. hypocrita.
Drassodex hypocrita (Simon, 1878)
Range: Belgium, Estonia?, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Latvia?, Lithuania?, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Drassyllus Chamberlin, 1922
Characters of genus: Posterior medial eyes larger than laterals and in most species oval and oblique. Posterior row of eyes slightly procurved and the medials are closer to each other than to the laterals. Distal end of metatarsi III og IV is furnished with a ventral comb. Mostly dark species resembling species of the Zelotes genus.
There are 10 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Drassyllus crimeaensis, D. jubatopalpis, D. lutetianus, D. praeficus, D. pumiloides, D. pumilus, D. pusillus, D. sur, D. villicus, D. vinealis.
Drassyllus lutetianus (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Drassyllus praeficus (L. Koch, 1866)
Description: Very dark brown or black species with contrasting yellow-orange branchial operculae. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 4.5-5 mm. Maturity: Spring and Summer. Habitat: Appears to be mainly coastal in Denmark. Seems to prefer dry areas with low vegetation and stones. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Drassyllus pusillus (C. L. Koch, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, note pale metatarsi og tarsi.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Gnaphosa Latreille, 1804
Characters of genus: Most species with dark brown cephalothorax. The abdomes is either dark brown, greyish-black or black, thickly covered with grey hairs. The genus is characterized by having the posterior row of eyes recurved.
There are 62 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Gnaphosa alacris, G. alpica, G. atramentaria, G. badia, G. balearicola, G. basilicata, G. betpaki, G. bicolor, G. bithynica, G. cantabrica, G. corticola, G. cumensis, G. dolosa, G. explicator, G. fallax, G. fumosa (nomen dubium), G. iberica, G. immatura (nomen dubium), G. inconspecta, G. jucunda, G. lapponum, G. lapponum inermis, G. leporina, G. limbata, G. lonai, G. lucifuga, G. luctifica, G. lugubris, G. microps, G. modestior, G. moesta, G. mongolica, G. montana, G. muscorum, G. muscorum gaunitzi, G. nana (nomen dubium), G. nigerrima, G. nordlandica, G. norvegica, G. occidentalis, G. oceanica, G. opaca, G. orchymonti, G. orites, G. petrobia, G. porrecta, G. prosperi, G. pseudolapponica, G. rhenana, G. rufula, G. saurica, G. secreta, G. steppica, G. sticta, G. stussineri, G. subrufula (nomen dubium), G. taurica, G. tetrica, G. thorelli (nomen dubium), G. tigrina, G. ukrainica, G. zeugitana.
Gnaphosa alacris Simon, 1878
Range: Andorra, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy, Croatia, Morocco (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Subadult male.
Gnaphosa bicolor (Hahn, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Exuvium.
Female.
Juvenile.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Gnaphosa leporina (L. Koch, 1866)
Description: Overall brownish with cephalothorax darker than the abdomen and legs. Size: Female 7-9 mm; male 5.5-7 mm. Maturity: Summer Habitat: Moist heather. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Female.
Male.
Gnaphosa lucifuga (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Gnaphosa lugubris (C. L. Koch, 1839)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female (one eye is missing).
Female.
Female.
Gnaphosa nigerrima L. Koch, 1877
Range: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Subadult male, spinners.
Subadult male, abdomen.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Subadult male.
Male palp.
Male spinners.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Gnaphosa saurica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992
Range: Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male palp.
Genus: Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922
Characters of genus: Carapace elongate and fairly low. The brownish cephalothorax have complex black lines. Head much wider than both row of eyes. The posterior medial eyes are larger than the laterals as well as oval and oblique. Posterior row of eyes has the medials closer to each other than to the laterals. Anterior row of eyes straight or slightly recurved while posterior row is procurved. The distance between the outer edges of anterior medial eyes is about the same as the distance between outer edges of posterior medials. Clypeus low about equal to the distance of one anterior medial eye. Fovea short as in the Clubionidae. Chelicerae strong with lateral condyles. Chelicerae with teeht both on promargin and retromargin. Labium longer than wide and angulate where sides meets posterior border.Sternum does not extend between coxae IV. Trochanters smooth. The distal end of metatarsi III and IV is not furnished with a preening comb. Males do not have a scutum. Some species have vague patterns of chevrons on the abdomen, but these patterns are not reliable in separating the species since the variation within species is considerable. Male palp with a tibial apophysis, the shape of which is important for identification. Sometimes the shape is discernible with a lens allowing for identification in the field. The epigyne is often large and females of some species are also identifiable in the field using a lens.
There are 24 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Haplodrassus aenus, H. bohemicus, H. canariensis, H. cognatus, H. concertor, H. creticus, H. dalmatensis, H. dalmatensis pictus, H. deserticola, H. hiemalis, H. invalidus, H. kulczynskii, H. macellinus, H. macellinus hebes, H. minor, H. moderatus, H. pseudosignifer, H. pugnans, H. severus, H. signifer, H. silvestris, H. soerenseni, H. umbratilis, H. umbratilis gothicus.
Haplodrassus canariensis Schmidt, 1977
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Haplodrassus deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Haplodrassus macellinus (Thorell, 1871)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Haplodrassus minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)
Description: Resemble H. signifer but is much smaller. The size of adults is helpful in identifying the species. Size: Female 4 mm; male 3.5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Coastal shingle and sandy beaches with upwash. Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Moldova, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Haplodrassus moderatus (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Haplodrassus signifer (C. L. Koch, 1839) - Stealthy ground spider
Description: Carapace greyish brown to dark brown, head gradually darker towards anterior edge in lighter specimens. Chelicerae dark brown. Sternum dark brown. Legs brown. The abdomen is somewhat flattened, brown to blackish. Three pairs of longitudinal short stripes (sigilla?) are sometimes visible on dorsum, the posterior pair oblique. Light, obscure chevrons sometimes present in lighter, mostly female specimens. Males generally darker than females, sometimes nearly black. Size: Female 7-9 mm; male 5-8 mm. Maturity: Spring and early summer. Habitat: Open, mostly dry habitats such as heathland, dunes and sandy grassland. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female before oviposition.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Juvenile.
Male.
Female.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Haplodrassus silvestris (Blackwall, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, note the characteristic pointed tibial apophyse.
Male, palp.
Haplodrassus soerenseni (Strand, 1900)
Description: Similar to H. signifer but smaller and the overall colouration is more brownish. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 4.5.5.5 mm. Maturity: Summer. Habitat: Forest floor of open pine and coniferous forests. The retreat can be found in moss or under objects. Range: Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Leptodrassex Murphy, 2007
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Leptodrassex hylaestomachi, L. simoni.
Leptodrassex hylaestomachi (Berland, 1934)
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Leptodrassus Simon, 1878
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Leptodrassus albidus, L. croaticus, L. diomedeus, L. femineus, L. hadjissaranti, L. manolisi, L. memorialis, L. pupa.
Leptodrassus albidus Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain to Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Leptodrassus femineus (Simon, 1873)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal to Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Macarophaeus Wunderlich, 2011
There are 4 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Macarophaeus cultior, M. insignis, M. subulum, M. varius.
Macarophaeus insignis Wunderlich, 2011
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Female, epigyne.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female, note conspicuously long spinners.
Male.
Male, abdomen.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Macarophaeus varius (Simon, 1893)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Female, epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Micaria Westring, 1851
Characters of genus: This genus has previously been assigned to the Clubionidae by some workers. A depression across the endites and the often oval posterior medial eyes has resulted in its present status as a gnaphosid genus. Tne cephalothorax and abdomen is covered with flattened dark scales, usually iridecent and sometimes with contrasting white spots or stripes. Slim, antlike spiders running rapidly over the ground in dry and warm places.
There are 34 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Micaria aenea, M. albovittata, M. alpina, M. blicki, M. bosmansi, M. brignolii, M. chlorophana (nomen dubium), M. coarctata, M. constricta, M. cyrnea, M. dives, M. exilis (nomen dubium), M. formicaria, M. fulgens, M. funerea, M. gomerae, M. gulliae, M. guttigera, M. guttulata, M. ignea, M. koeni, M. lenzi, M. nivosa, M. pallipes, M. palmgreni, M. pulicaria, M. rossica, M. rossii (nomen dubium), M. silesiaca, M. similis strandi (nomen dubium), M. sociabilis, M. subopaca, M. triguttata, M. tripunctata.
Micaria aenea Thorell, 1871
Size: Female 4-4.5 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Maturity: Spring and early summer. Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Micaria albovittata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Macedonia, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Northern European)?, Russia (NW. European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micaria brignolii (Bosmans & Blick, 2000)
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micaria coarctata (Lucas, 1846)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Great Britain (Channel Islands), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female with prey.
Female spinners.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micaria dives (Lucas, 1846) - Jewel ant-spider
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Netherlands, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile (subadult?). Missing right foreleg regenerated almost completely in just one moult.
Male.
Male.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Micaria formicaria (Sundevall, 1831)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia?, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micaria fulgens (Walckenaer, 1802) - Purple ant-spider
Size: Female 4.5-6 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia, North Africa (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micaria gomerae Strand, 1911
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Micaria guttigera Simon, 1878
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Micaria lenzi Bösenberg, 1899
Description: Resemble the much commoner M. pulicaria but is smaller and with less pronounced white markings on the abdomen reduced to a vague, transverse line. The iridescence appear more purplish than that of M. pulicaria. Size: Female 2.6-3 mm; male 2.3-2.7 mm. Maturity: Spring and early summer. Habitat: Dunes and costal areas with short vegetation and stones, including shingle. Range: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Juvenile.
Micaria nivosa L. Koch, 1866
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall, 1831) - Glossy ant-spider
Description: Head black with radiating white lines. Iridescense less pronounced compared to the highly iredescent abdomen. There are two transverse, white lines on the abdomen, followed by three dots. Femora I and II are black, while femora III and IV are dark brown. Size: Female 2.7-4.5 mm; male 3-3.5 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Dry and sunny places in a variety of situations, including gardens. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Micaria silesiaca L. Koch, 1875 - Sand ant-spider
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Micaria subopaca Westring, 1861 - Pine-tree ant-spider
Size: Female 2.8-3.3 mm; male 2.5-3 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Genus: Nomisia Dalmas, 1921
There are 14 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Nomisia aussereri, N. celerrima, N. excerpta, N. exornata, N. fagei, N. fortis, N. gomerensis, N. molendinaria, N. montenegrina, N. musiva, N. orientalis, N. palaestina, N. perpusilla, N. recepta, N. ripariensis.
Nomisia excerpta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)
Range: Greece (Crete), Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is, Tunisia, Crete, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male, palp.
Female.
Nomisia exornata (C. L. Koch, 1839)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Nomisia fortis Dalmas, 1921
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Nomisia gomerensis Wunderlich, 2011
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is. (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Genus: Phaeocedus Simon, 1893
There are 2 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Phaeocedus braccatus, P. braccatus jugorum.
Phaeocedus braccatus (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European)?, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Poecilochroa Westring, 1874
There are 11 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Poecilochroa albomaculata, P. furcata, P. hungarica, P. loricata, P. patricia, P. perversa, P. phyllobia, P. senilis, P. senilis auspex, P. tescorum, P. variana.
Poecilochroa variana (C. L. Koch, 1839)
Range: Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Genus: Scotognapha Dalmas, 1920
There are 13 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Scotognapha atomaria, S. brunnea, S. canaricola, S. convexa, S. costacalma, S. galletas, S. haria, S. juangrandica, S. medano, S. paivai, S. taganana, S. teideensis, S. wunderlichi.
Scotognapha canaricola (Strand, 1911)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Scotognapha galletas Platnick, Ovtsharenko & Murphy, 2001
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female, epigyne.
Female, eye region.
Female.
Scotognapha teideensis (Wunderlich, 1992)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Scotophaeus Simon, 1893
Characters of genus: This genus has three species in Northern Europe of which two occur in Denmark. The abdomen is without a pattern and appear greasy silverish-grey due to the short, dense grey hairs. The males have a conspicious brown abdominal scutum, but is small and therefore not clearly visible for the commonest species of the genus, S. blackwalli. The posterior medial eyes are circular and slightly closer to another than to the laterals. Height of clypeus about the same as the diameter of an anterior medial eye. In Northern Europe the species are found exclusively within houses where they wander about at nighttime.
There are 20 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Scotophaeus aculeatus, S. blackwalli, S. blackwalli isabellinus, S. blackwalli politus, S. brolemanni, S. cultior, S. fabrisae, S. hierro, S. mauckneri, S. mengei (nomen dubium), S. musculus, S. nanus, S. peninsularis, S. quadripunctatus, S. retusus, S. scutulatus, S. tubicola, S. validus, S. varius, S. westringi.
Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell, 1871)
Description: This species is also known under the name Herpyllus blackwalli. Males slightly smaller than females, otherwise the sexes are similar. The cephalothorax and legs are orange brown covered with grey hairs. Size: Female 9-12 mm; male 7-10 mm. Maturity: Females throughout year, males in summer and autumn. Habitat: In Denmark only inside heated houses. In warmer parts of Europe also outdoors under bark and crevices in walls. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Northern European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Typical cylindrical Gnaphosid spinnerets.
Female.
Male.
Scotophaeus scutulatus (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Lithuania?, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Habitat, stem with bark peeled off to reveal eggsack .
Male, note that scutum is not visible on living specimens.
Female.
Male.
Female, abdominal markings.
Male.
Female, leg with scopula.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Setaphis Simon, 1893
There are 7 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Setaphis algerica, S. canariensis, S. carmeli, S. gomerae, S. parvula, S. walteri, S. wunderlichi.
Setaphis gomerae (Schmidt, 1981)
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Trachyzelotes Lohmander, 1944
There are 13 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Trachyzelotes adriaticus, T. barbatus, T. bardiae, T. cumensis, T. fuscipes, T. holosericeus, T. huberti, T. jaxartensis, T. kulczynskii, T. lyonneti, T. malkini, T. mutabilis, T. pedestris, T. stubbsi.
Trachyzelotes barbatus (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Southern European), Slovenia?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Central Asia, USA (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Trachyzelotes fuscipes (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, China (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Trachyzelotes holosericeus (Simon, 1878)
Range: Croatia, France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Western Mediterranean (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Trachyzelotes lyonneti (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Croatia, France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Russia (Southern European), Spain (Canary Islands), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Central Asia, USA, Brazil, Peru (Platnick 10.0).
Palp.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Trachyzelotes pedestris (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Trachyzelotes stubbsi Platnick & Murphy, 1984
Range: Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Cyprus (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Genus: Zelotes Gistel, 1848
Characters of genus: Brownish-black to black spiders without markings. Resemble dark species of Drassyllus. Posterior medial eyes are of about the the same size as the laterals. Posterior eyerow is straight, rarely procurved and eyes equidistant. The eye rows are short due to a narrow head region, the width of an eyerow less than one third of the width of the carapace at its widest point. The carapace is usually shiny and shinier than the abdomen. Some species of the genus have been moved to other genera probably because it used to be species rich with more than fifty species known from France. Several species are almost identical and needs microscopic examination of the genitialia to be separated with certainity. Some species may in some cases be identified by the markings on the legs.
There are 107 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Zelotes abditus, Z. aeneus, Z. aerosus, Z. agilis (nomen dubium), Z. apricorum, Z. argoliensis, Z. ater (nomen dubium), Z. atrocaeruleus, Z. aurantiacus, Z. azsheganovae, Z. balcanicus, Z. bimaculatus, Z. calactinus, Z. callidus, Z. caprearum, Z. caucasius, Z. civicus, Z. clivicola, Z. collinus (nomen dubium), Z. creticus, Z. criniger, Z. cyanescens, Z. daidalus, Z. denapes, Z. denisi, Z. dentatidens, Z. devotus, Z. egregius, Z. electus, Z. erebeus, Z. exiguus, Z. fallax, Z. femellus, Z. flagellans, Z. flavimanus, Z. fulvaster, Z. fulvopilosus, Z. fuscorufus, Z. fuscotestaceus, Z. fuscus, Z. gallicus, Z. gracilis, Z. graecus, Z. hermani, Z. hirtus, Z. ilotarum, Z. insulanus, Z. khostensis, Z. kochi (nomen dubium), Z. kukushkini, Z. laetus, Z. latreillei, Z. longestylus, Z. longipes, Z. lugubris (nomen dubium), Z. maccaricus, Z. manius, Z. manzae, Z. medianus, Z. messinai, Z. mikhailovi, Z. minous, Z. mundus, Z. murcidus, Z. nanus (nomen dubium), Z. nilicola, Z. nitidus, Z. oblongus, Z. occultus, Z. olympi, Z. orenburgensis, Z. pallipes (nomen dubium), Z. paroculus, Z. pediculatoides, Z. petiverii (nomen dubium), Z. petrensis, Z. plumiger, Z. pluridentatus, Z. potanini, Z. prognathus (nomen dubium), Z. pseudogallicus, Z. puritanus, Z. pygmaeus, Z. pyrenaeus, Z. reimoseri, Z. rufi, Z. rufipes, Z. ruscinensis, Z. sardus, Z. schmitzi, Z. scrutatus, Z. segrex, Z. semirufus, Z. siculus, Z. similis, Z. similis hungaricus, Z. solstitialis, Z. spadix, Z. subterraneus, Z. talpinus, Z. teidei, Z. tenuis, Z. thorelli, Z. tristis, Z. varius (nomen dubium), Z. vespertinus, Z. villicoides, Z. zellensis.
Zelotes aeneus (Simon, 1878)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Palp and epigyne.
Male.
Zelotes apricorum (L. Koch, 1876)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia?, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia?, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Kazakhstan (Platnick 10.0).
Female, wet with dew.
Female, wet with dew.
Zelotes caucasius (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Zelotes clivicola (L. Koch, 1870)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary?, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Zelotes electus (C. L. Koch, 1839)
Description: Zelotes electus has stout legs compared to other Zelotes species and therefore appear robust. The species is also characterised by compactly grouped eyes, where the anterior medials are contiguous with the anterior laterals. The pigmentation of the legs aids in distinguishing the species in this genus as well as for a few closely related genera. Zelotes electus has femora brown but darkened apically, dark patella, dark tibia, brown or orange metatarsi and tarsi. Size: Female 4-5.5 mm; male 3.5-4.5 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Locally common in coastal dunes with lichens and low vegetation sometimes also further inland. The spider is frquently seen running about in sunshine. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands)?, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Zelotes erebeus (Thorell, 1871)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female (Photo © Dimitri Geystor, FR).
Female (Photo © Dimitri Geystor, FR).
Epigyne (Photo © Dimitri Geystor, FR).
Male.
Male.
Zelotes latreillei (Simon, 1878)
Description: Large, shiny black species. Except for orange operculae, the only non black parts are the tarsi which are brownish-grey. Size: Female 7-8 mm; male 4.5-7.5 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: In a variety of dry situations, such as dunes, sandy foreland and open forest on sandy soil. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Zelotes longipes (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Eggsack.
Female.
Female.
Zelotes nilicola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1874)
Range: Cyprus, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean, Canary Is, USA (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Zelotes petrensis (C. L. Koch, 1839)
Description: Almost identical to Z. latreillei but slightly smaller. The two species are only separated by examinating the genitilia using a microscope. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Heather and sandy pine forests. Less coastal in distribution than Z. latreillei. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Zelotes sardus (Canestrini, 1873)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Zelotes segrex (Simon, 1878)
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Sicily), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Zelotes solstitialis Levy, 1998
Range: Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria, Turkey, Crete, Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Zelotes sp.
Male, all leg segments dark (tarsi and metatarsi slightly lighter).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Zelotes subterraneus (C. L. Koch, 1833)
Description: Very similar to Z. latreillei, but is on the average, slightly larger. Microscopic examination is needed for proper species identification. Size: Female 6.5-9 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: Spring and summer. Habitat: Dry places with low vegetation and open forests. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Zelotes tenuis (L. Koch, 1866)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Ukraine, USA (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Palp and epigyne.
Zelotes thorelli Simon, 1914
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.