- only species with images listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Dysderidae (Woodlouse Spiders)
Characters of family: Six-eyed spiders with the eyes arranged in an oval ring. They are haplogyne without epigynes and the male palpal organs are relatively simple. The legs are stout, without much hair and usually with few or none spines.
This family is represented in Europe with 312 species in 21 genera (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009). European genera (number of species in parenthesis): Dasumia (10), Dysdera (156), Dysderocrates (5), Folkia (7), Harpactea (76), Harpactocrates (11), Holissus (1), Hygrocrates (1), Kaemis (3), Mesostalita (3), Minotauria (2), Parachtes (12), Parastalita (1), Rhode (8), Rhodera (1), Sardostalita (1), Schaenobates (1), Speleoharpactea (1), Stalagtia (6), Stalita (5), Stalitella (1).
Genus: Dysdera Latreille, 1804
Characters of genus: The chelicerae are long and projects forward considerably. They seem well adapted to defeat woodlice.
There are 156 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Dysdera aculeata, D. adriatica, D. affinis, D. alegranzaensis, D. alentejana, D. ambulotenta, D. ancora, D. andamanae, D. andreini, D. apenninica, D. apenninica aprutiana, D. argaeica, D. arganoi, D. aurgitana, D. baetica, D. bandamae, D. baratellii, D. beieri, D. bellimundi, D. bicornis, D. bottazziae, D. breviseta, D. brevispina, D. brignoliana, D. calderensis, D. castillonensis, D. centroitalica, D. cephalonica, D. chioensis, D. circularis, D. coiffaiti, D. corfuensis, D. cribellata, D. cribrata, D. crocata, D. curviseta, D. diversa, D. dubrovninnii, D. dunini, D. edumifera, D. enghoffi, D. enguriensis, D. erythrina, D. erythrina fervida, D. erythrina lantosquensis, D. erythrina provincialis, D. espanoli, D. esquiveli, D. falciformis, D. festai, D. flagellata, D. flagellifera, D. flagellifera aeoliensis, D. flavitarsis, D. fragaria, D. fuscipes, D. fustigans, D. gamarrae, D. gibbifera, D. gigas, D. gollumi, D. gomerensis, D. granulata, D. guayota, D. halkidikii, D. helenae, D. hernandezi, D. hiemalis, D. hirguan, D. hungarica, D. iguanensis, D. inermis, D. insulana, D. kollari, D. kulczynskii, D. labradaensis, D. lagrecai, D. lancerotensis, D. lata, D. laterispina, D. levipes, D. ligustica, D. limnos, D. liostetha, D. longa, D. longibulbis, D. longimandibularis, D. longirostris, D. lusitanica, D. machadoi, D. macra, D. madai, D. maurusia, D. minuta, D. minutissima, D. montanetensis, D. monterossoi, D. mordax, D. mucronata, D. murphiorum, D. neocretica, D. nesiotes, D. nicaeensis, D. ninnii, D. nubila, D. orahan, D. ortunoi, D. osellai, D. paganettii, D. pandazisi, D. paucispinosa, D. pavani, D. pectinata, D. pominii, D. portisancti, D. presai, D. pretneri, D. pristiphora, D. punctata, D. punctocretica, D. ramblae, D. ratonensis, D. richteri, D. romana, D. romantica, D. rubus, D. rudis, D. rugichelis, D. rullii, D. sanborondon, D. scalaris (nomen dubium), D. sciakyi, D. sibyllina, D. sibyllinica, D. silana, D. silvatica, D. spinicrus, D. spinidorsa, D. subnubila, D. subsquarrosa, D. sultani, D. taurica, D. tilosensis, D. ukrainensis, D. unguimmanis, D. valentina, D. vandeli, D. veigai, D. ventricosa, D. verneaui, D. vivesi, D. volcania, D. werneri, D. westringi, D. yguanirae.
Dysdera cribellata Simon, 1883
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female (note "circular" depressions in carapace).
Female.
Female.
Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Cosmopolitan (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Female.
Dysdera dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold, 1988
Range: Albania, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans, Albania (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Chelicerae almost half the length of the cephalothorax. This is a character separating it from the somewhat larger and stouter D. crocota which have chelicerae lengths more than half the length of the cephalothorax. Size: Female 9-10 mm; male 7-8 mm. Habitat: Warm, damp and semidamp places, sites also preferred by woodlice. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male, note that there are no dorsal spines on femur IV.
Female.
Male palp.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, chelicers.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Dysdera fuscipes Simon, 1882
Range: France (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Dysdera insulana Simon, 1883
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Dysdera levipes Wunderlich, 1987
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Dysdera macra Simon, 1883
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female (note stepped carapace).
Female.
Female.
Dysdera ninnii Canestrini, 1868
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Southern Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Dysdera ramblae Arnedo, Oromí & Ribera, 1997
Range: Spain (Canary Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdomen.
Female, leg IV spines.
Genus: Harpactea Bristowe, 1939
Characters of genus: The nocturnal species of this genus is characterised by small chelicerea as opposed to .
There are 76 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Harpactea abantia, H. aeoliensis, H. aeruginosa, H. albanica, H. alexandrae, H. algarvensis, H. alicatai, H. apollinea, H. arguta, H. asparuhi, H. azowensis, H. babori, H. blasi, H. camenarum, H. carusoi, H. catholica, H. cecconii, H. coccifera, H. cognata (nomen dubium), H. corinthia, H. corticalis, H. cressa, H. deltshevi, H. doblikae, H. dufouri, H. fageli, H. gaditana, H. gennargentu, H. gridellii, H. grisea, H. hauseri, H. haymozi, H. heliconia, H. henschi, H. hispana, H. hombergi, H. incerta, H. johannitica, H. krueperi, H. kubrati, H. kulczynskii, H. lehoni (nomen dubium), H. lepida, H. loebli, H. longobarda, H. magnibulbi, H. minoccii, H. muscicola, H. nausicaae, H. nuragica, H. oglasana, H. ortegai, H. parvula (nomen dubium), H. piligera, H. proxima, H. rubicunda, H. rucnerorum, H. saeva, H. samuili, H. sanctidomini, H. sardoa, H. sciakyi, H. serena, H. sicula, H. spasskyi, H. srednagora, H. stalitoides, H. strandi, H. strandjica, H. strinatii, H. sturanyi, H. subiasi, H. thaleri, H. villehardouini, H. zannonensis, H. zoiai.
Harpactea corticalis (Simon, 1882)
Range: France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Malta, Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Harpactea dufouri (Thorell, 1873)
Range: Spain (Balearic Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balearic Is (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Harpactea hombergi (Scopoli, 1763)
Description: Females with elongate slim abdomen. Males even slimmer with long tubular abdomen. Head rather glossy and dark, abdomen greyish brown. Legs yellow but with parts of femora, tibia and metatarsi darkened. Size: Female 6-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Maturity: All year? Habitat: Under bark, stones, dead wood and roots, sometimes between dried leaves in grrass tussucks etc. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Harpactea rubicunda (C. L. Koch, 1838)
Description: Similar in appearance to Dysdera species but has much less prominent chelicerea. The number of spines on femur IV (8-10) is also higher than found within Dysdera (1-3). These spines are just visible on the picture below. Size: Female 8-12 mm; male 7-8 mm. Maturity: Spring and early summer? Habitat: Under stones and other objects in dry and sunny places such as wasteland. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland)?, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Female abdomen.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female, characteristic dorsal spines on femur IV.
Female.
Juvenile.
Female.
Male.
Female mouthparts.
Female, venter.
Female, eyes.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Harpactea subiasi Ferrndez, 1990
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Rhode Simon, 1882
There are 8 European species (van Helsdingen, 2009; Platnick, 2009): Rhode aspinifera, R. biscutata, R. magnifica, R. scutiventris, R. stalitoides, R. subterranea, R. tenuipes, R. testudinea.
Rhode scutiventris Simon, 1882
Range: Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.