- filtered for Croatia
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Araneidae (Typical Orb Weavers)
Biology: The Araneidae is the world’s third largest spider family with more than 2850 species described in more than 165 genera. They range in size from small to large (2-30 mm body size). The species occupy a wide range of habitats and are found in terrestrial ecosystems all over the world with the exception of some high arctic areas, islands and archipelagos. Most species build an orb web with sticky spiral threads but some genera in the tropics have reduced or abandoned web building altogether. The webs are built in the herb layer, in or between bushes and trees and on buildings and possibly in many other places. Some species stay in the hub of the web sometimes camouflaged by a stabilimentum. Other species use a retreat as a hiding place or stay outside the web, in both cases holding a signal thread to detect when prey become tangled in the web. When males become adult they leave their web in search of females. Great care is taken when approaching the female web so the usually larger female does not eat the male. I many species courtship is undertaken by plucking and jerking the female web to suppress predatory behaviour of the female and to have her express mating behaviour instead.
Characters of family: The araneids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4 with the lateral eyes widely separated from the medial eyes. The carapace is often flat with a distinct head region. The chelicers are strong having a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). Labium is wider than long and rebordered (swollen at anterior edge). Maxilla (basal part of palp used for chewing prey) are widest anteriorly. Legs with 3 claws and often furnished with strong spines and trichobothria on all segments except tarsi. Often legs are clearly annulated. The abdomen is usually globose and nearly always with species-specific often bright colour patterns. The abdomens of some species are round-shouldered while others have humps, the latter species often referred to as angulate orb weavers. Some tropical species have large outgrows on the abdomen. A colulus (midline appendage or tubercle) is present in front of the anterior spinnerets. The tracheal spiracle is situated close to spinnerets. Araneids belong to the entelegyne group of spiders often having large and complex epigynes sometimes with a large flexible scapus (finger-, tongue-, or lip-like projection arising in the midline of the epigyne). The male palp is complex.
Genus: Aculepeira Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942
Aculepeira armida (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic?, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Aculepeira ceropegia (Walckenaer, 1802)
Description: Aculepeira ceropegia is instantly recognised by the shape of the abdomen, which is pointed at both ends and by the characteristic white lobes on the folium. Habitat: Meadows with tall vegetation. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female head.
Genus: Agalenatea Archer, 1951
Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female with triangular brown patch on abdomen.
Female with greenish abdominal markings.
Male palp.
Male.
Female abdominal markings.
Genus: Araneus Clerck, 1757 - Angulate and round-shouldered orb weavers
Biology: The species produce fairly large almost vertical orb webs with about 18-30 radii and with the retreat placed higher than the web among leaves, under bark, on twigs, in lichens and on buildings (Locket & Millidge 1953, Almquist 2005).
Characters of genus: Small to large large spiders ranging from 2.5 mm to at least 25 mm body length. Posterior medial eyes slightly larger than the rest and separated by one diameter from each other. Anterior medials separated by 2-3 diameters. Height of clypeus ca. 1.5 diameter of one anterior medial eye. Some species have well-developed shoulder humps while other are round-shouldered or possess traces of humps such as Araneus diadematus. There is some sexual dimorphism with males smaller and much slimmer than females, especially gravid ones. Epigyne with large scape originating from base of epigyne. Male palp complex, the shape of embolus and terminal apophysis being the most important characters for separating the species (Almquist 2005).
Araneus alsine (Walckenaer, 1802) - Pink orb weaver
Description: The beautiful Pink Orb Weaver is easily overlooked since the species often hides in a retreat consisting of dried leaves spun together to form an inverted cone. The retreat and web is found in low vegetation, often near bushes of Bog Whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum). Habitat: Wet, swampy bogs with heather and birch, usually near forest and in warm situations. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
The adult female shown here sits rather unnaturally on top of its retreat from which it was gently retracted in order to shoot the image..
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female abdomen.
Female seen from front.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1757
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juveniles.
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male, abdominal humps and characteristic white markings in front of these.
Male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Araneus circe (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Austria, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male, note thorn-like outgrowths on coxa II and apically on tibia II (the latter is just visible near lower edge of image).
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp and thorn-like outgrowth on coxa II.
Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 - Cross orb weaver
Description: Angulate orb weaver with elongate abdomen widest at the position of the rather faint shoulder humps anterior to the middle. The general colour varies from pale yellow to nearly black with most specimens reddish or brownish. The carapace is yellowish brown and varies less in colour, often with dark median and lateral bands and covered with long white hairs, however less so at edges. Head large, protruding. Chelicerae and sternum dark brown. Folium is not always distinct. Usually there is a distinct cruciform marking on the abdominal dorsum consisting of a longitudinal row of white dots and a pair of lateral dots situated in the middle of the anterior half. Legs yellowish brown annulated with dark brown. The legs are provided with numerous strong spines. Male tibia II with eight pairs of short, thick spines. Size: Female 9-14 mm; male 4-9 mm. Habitat: Widespread and common in most of Europe. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Subadult female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult female.
Subadult female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Araneus grossus (C. L. Koch, 1844)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, characterisic round abdominal marking.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Araneus marmoreus Clerck, 1757 - Marbled orbweaver
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female abdominal markings.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Male palp.
Female abdominal markings.
Female abdominal markings.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 - Four-spot orb weaver
Description: Round-shouldered orb weaver with elongate abdomen. However, large gravid females have almost circular abdomens. The dorsum of the abdomen varies in ground colour from yellow, greenish grey, orange, brownish red or red. Dorsum are distinctly marked with four large white spots forming a square in anterior half and a white median line on fore margin. Carapace light yellowish with dark median and lateral bands. The median band is irregular often wider or forked in front. Legs yellowish white, clearly annulated with dark brown and provided with strong spines. Male tibia II are provided with strong spines. Scape short and broad at base. Size: Female 9-15 mm; male 6-9 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Subadult female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male palps.
Female, mouthparts.
Female epigyne.
Female, spinners.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Araneus sturmi (Hahn, 1831)
Size: Female 3-5 mm; male 3-4 mm. Habitat: Evergreen trees and bushes, spins its web at 1-2 m above ground level. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Juvenile with parasitic larvae.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult female.
Subadult female.
Araneus triguttatus (Fabricius, 1793)
Size: Female 4.5-6 mm; male 3-4.5 mm. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Subadult male, abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male, note the characteristic trifid median apophysis.
Araneus vulpinus (Hahn, 1834)
Range: Croatia, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Araniella Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942
Araniella alpica (L. Koch, 1869)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female, note red dot behind spinners.
Female.
Female, note the highly characteristic epigyne of this species.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Araniella displicata (Hentz, 1847) - Sixspottet orbweaver
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Araniella opisthographa (Kulczynski, 1905)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Juvenile male with parasitic larvae.
Juvenile male with parasitic larvae.
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Araniella proxima (Kulczynski, 1885)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Argiope Audouin, 1826 - Garden orbweavers
Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Cocoon.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Old World (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Epigyne.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Cercidia Thorell, 1869
Cercidia prominens (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, cataleptic.
Genus: Cyclosa Menge, 1866 - Thrashline orbweavers
Cyclosa baloghi Kolosvry, 1934
Range: Croatia, Hungary (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Hungary (Platnick 10.0).
Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Lateral view of female abdomen.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female, lateral abdominal markings.
Female.
Cyclosa insulana (Costa, 1834)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Malta, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Philippines, Australia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female sternum.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Genus: Cyrtarachne Thorell, 1868
Cyrtarachne ixoides (Simon, 1870)
Range: Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Georgia, Madagascar (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Gibbaranea Archer, 1951
Gibbaranea bituberculata (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male, abdominal markings.
Gibbaranea gibbosa (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Gibbaranea omoeda (Thorell, 1870)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Subadult male.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Gibbaranea ullrichi (Hahn, 1835)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Glyptogona Simon, 1884
Glyptogona sextuberculata (Keyserling, 1863)
Range: Croatia, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy to Israel (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Hypsosinga Ausserer, 1871
Biology: Often shiny species.
Characters of genus: The legs are short with combined length of patella and tibia I hardly as long as carapace. Posterior medial eyes larger than the other eyes.
Hypsosinga albovittata (Westring, 1851)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, North Africa, Russia, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Subadult male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Hypsosinga heri (Hahn, 1831)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Hypsosinga sanguinea (C. L. Koch, 1844)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Larinioides Caporiacco, 1934
Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757) - Furrow orbweaver
Size: Female 6-9 mm; male 5-8 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female, unusual reddish.
Female abdominal markings of reddish specimen.
Larinioides ixobolus (Thorell, 1873)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland (introduced), Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Larinioides patagiatus (Clerck, 1757)
Size: Female 5-7 mm; male 5-6 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Also known from Greenland (Masurik in prep.). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female folium.
Male.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile, abdominal markings.
Juvenile.
Male.
Genus: Leviellus Wunderlich, 2004
Leviellus thorelli (Ausserer, 1871)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic?, France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, sternum.
Female, epigyne and spinners.
Genus: Mangora O. P.-Cambridge, 1889
Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Portugal (Selvagens Islands), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Genus: Neoscona Simon, 1864 - Spottet orbweavers
Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Neoscona subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Greece (North Aegean Islands), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Azores)?, Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Old World (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Genus: Nuctenea Simon, 1864
Characters of genus: Carapace rather broad and flattened. Anterior medial eyes are situated on a low elevation. Medial trapezium slightly wider at rear. Height of clypeus about one diameter of an anterior medial eye. Lower edge of clypeus curve downward in area below anterior medial eyes. Abdomen flattened with a wide dark folium extending full length of abdomen. Several light spots are present within folium as are four pairs of large, brown or blackish impressed dots (sigilla). Venter black with a white or yellow comma-shaped mark in each side. Males with a hook on distal margin of coxa I opposite a depression on femur II (Almquist 2005).
Nuctenea umbratica (Clerck, 1757) - Walnut orb-weaver
Description: Carapace brown with two dark parallel lines from fovea to posterior medial eyes. Sternum, coxae and trochanters dark brown or blackish and furnished with long white hairs. Abdomen flattened dorsoventrally, widest at middle. Anterior edge of abdomen idented in middle in some specimens. Folium dark brown sometimes outlined with narrow, wavy light bands and lighter sides. Some specimens appear lighter due to dense hairing with lighter hairs which may be further exaggerated by reflections artefacts on flash photos. Venter black with a white or yellow comma-shaped mark in each side, the marks being more curved than those of N. silvicultrix. Legs brown or dark brown with darker annulations. Legs may also appear annulated due to rings of dense white hairs. Epigynal scape short and horseshoe-shaped. Size: Female 9-14 mm; male 7-9 mm. Range: Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female, venter.
Female epigyne.
Female, mouth.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Genus: Parazygiella Wunderlich, 2004
Parazygiella montana (C. L. Koch, 1834)
Range: Austria, Belarus?, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Subadult male.
Genus: Singa C. L. Koch, 1836 - Pyjama orbweavers
Singa hamata (Clerck, 1757)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Male.
Subadult male.
Singa lucina (Audouin, 1826)
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Southern European), Spain (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Mediterranean to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Singa nitidula C. L. Koch, 1844
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Genus: Stroemiellus Wunderlich, 2004
Stroemiellus stroemi (Thorell, 1870)
Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Northern European), Russia (NW. European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Genus: Zilla C. L. Koch, 1834
Zilla diodia (Walckenaer, 1802)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Russia (Central European), Russia (Eastern European), Russia (Kaliningrad Region), Russia (Southern European), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Balearic Islands), Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Azerbaijan (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female, abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Genus: Zygiella F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1902
Biology: Orbweavers construcing webs nearly always with missing sector in upper part with the signal thread in missing sector between hub and retreat.
Characters of genus: Anterior row of eyes recurv, posterior slightly procurved. Median ocular trapezium forms a square. Distance between posterior medians only slightly smaller than the distance to adjacent laterals. Clypeus less than diameter of one anterior medial eye. Dorsum of abdomen usually with a dark bordered folium. Venter and sternum with dark bands.
Zygiella keyserlingi (Ausserer, 1871)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Portugal (Mainland), Slovenia?, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) - Silver-sided sector spider
Description: Carapace yellowish with dark triangle in head region. Legs yellow with darker annulations. Sternum is also yellow with darker edges. The abdomen is oval with a large silvery folium outlined by sinuous brown bands . Sides vary in colour from light brown to reddish brown. Size: Female 5-9 mm; male 3.6-6 mm. Habitat: Outside of buildings, often on window frames. Also fences. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands (introduced), France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sardinia), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Portugal (Azores), Portugal (Madeira), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic, Neotropical (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.