- all species listed
Images and Species Descriptions
Text and photographs © 2011 Jørgen Lissner
The Spiders of Europe and Greenland
Family: Amaurobiidae (Hackledmesh Weavers)
Biology: This is a fairly small, poorly defined family, which is represented with ca. 680 species in 71 genera. They are found in most parts of the world with the exception of some arctic areas and islands such as Greenland and the Azorean Islands. Small to large spiders ranging 3-16 mm body size (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). Most European species are fairly large and robust, with relatively short and stout legs. Many species are ground dwellers constructing small funnel or tubular webs of cribellate or ecribellate silk under objects on the ground sometimes with a collar of silk spun around the opening. Some members of the Amaurobius genus constructs bluish cribellate webs behind bark of trees or on buildings and fences.
Characters of family: Most amaurobiids are cribellate but some genera transferred to Amaurobiidae from other families are ecribellate, e.g. Coelotes as well as other genera of the Coelotinae subfamily. Amaurobiids possess three tarsal claws and are entelegyne. The 8 eyes are usually pale and arranged in 2 rows of 4. The carapace is longer than wide, often having a broad, only slightly elevated head region. A fairly distinct, longitudinal fovea is present in many species. The sternum is oval to shield-shaped and blunt apex at rear. The lateral edges of the sternum are often sinuous. The chelicerae are often strong and usually longer and more slender in males than in females. The labium is formed like a rounded square or rectangle. The endites are almost parallel with brushes of hairs (scopulae) anteriorly. The abdomen is usually dominated by shades of brown or grey, often very dark and with markings as more or less distinct chevrons. It is densely covered by fine hairs of varying size. The legs are moderately long, especially in males and mostly uniformly coloured but sometimes with dark annulations. The tarsi and metatarsi are furnished with trichobothria arranged in rows, females with calamistrum on metatarsus IV having two rows of bristles. A more or less strongly divided cribellum is present anterior to the spinners. The cribellum is, however, reduced in males. The epigyne is often formed as a central plate separated from lateral parts by sutures. The male palp has simple sclerotized tibial apophyses and the shapes of these are important for species identification.
Genus: Amaurobius C. L. Koch, 1837
Biology: The species make bluish, cribellate webs in a variety of habitats including on the outside of buildings, under bark and in litter. Most species require examination under the stereomicroscope for proper identification.
Characters of genus: Medium sized to large spiders with most species having a body lengtht between 3.5 and 15 mm (Roberts 1995, Kaston 1978). Head high, covered with bent black hairs. Clypeus a little higher than the diameter of one anterior medial eye. Chelicerae robust, bulging on anterior surface and with a prominent lateral condyle. A bipartite cribellum is present anterior to the spinners (divided in two by a fine ridge). Calamistrium with double row of bristles originating about 1/5 distance from base of metatarsus IV. Femora with well developed dorsal and dorsolateral spines. Trichobothria on metatarsi and tarsi increase in lenght towards distal ends. Males are slimmer than the females, but the abdominal pattern are the same in both sexes. Male with three tibial apophyses which usually are visible with a lens. Epigynes variable from large median plate with small lateral lobes to small median plate with large lateral lobes.
Amaurobius aculeatus Franganillo, 1926 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius annulatus (Kulczynski, 1906)
Range: Croatia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Balkans (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius ausobskyi Thaler & Knoflach, 1998
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius barbarus Simon, 1910.
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Algeria (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius candia Thaler & Knoflach, 2002
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius cerberus Fage, 1931
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius crassipalpis Canestrini & Pavesi, 1870
Range: Germany, Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Germany, Switzerland, Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius cretaensis Wunderlich, 1995
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius deelemanae Thaler & Knoflach, 1995
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius drenskii Kratochvíl, 1934
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius erberi (Keyserling, 1863)
Range: Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Greece (Crete), Greece (Cyclades), Greece (Dodecanese Islands), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Macedonia, Malta, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia?, Spain (Canary Islands), Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Canary Is (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Male palp.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Exuvium.
Amaurobius fenestralis (Ström, 1768) - Window lace-weaver
Description: Carapace yellow-brown to brown with head sometimes darker. Legs yellow-brown with dark annulations. Abdomen yellow-brown with dark brown spots at sides. The area around the cardiac mark is darker than the remaining abdomen. Behind the cardiac mark there is a series of forward directed chevrons made by whitish hairs, further back followed by dark-brown chevrons. Size: Female 7-9 mm; male 5-7 mm. Maturity: All year, but mainly spring and autumn. Habitat: Behind bark of trees, under logs and treeroots in the forest floor. Range: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands (introduced), Finland, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Greece (Mainland)?, Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe to Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Male.
Male palps.
Male head.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer, 1830) - Black lace-weaver
Description: Larger than A. fenestralis and A. similis and considerably darker with a bluish tinge. Faint chevrons are visible on the abdomen. Legs also darker, reddish brown. The male palpal organs are strikingly white. Size: Female 12-16 mm; male 9-12 mm. Maturity: Males in spring and autumn, females most of the year. Habitat: Same as A. similis but more frequently in crevices in cliffs and underneath stones. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland (introduced), France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male.
Male palp.
Male palps.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Amaurobius franganilloi Roewer, 1951 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Portugal (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius geminus Thaler & Knoflach, 2002
Range: Greece (Crete) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Crete (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius hercegovinensis Kulczynski, 1915
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bosnia-Hercegovina (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius jugorum L. Koch, 1868
Range: Austria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius kratochvili Miller, 1938
Range: Croatia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius latebrosus Simon, 1874
Range: France (Corsica) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Corsica (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius longipes Thaler & Knoflach, 1995
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius minor Kulczynski, 1915
Range: Croatia, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius obustus L. Koch, 1868
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Romania, Slovenia, Ukraine? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius occidentalis Simon, 1892
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland)?, Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Portugal, Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius ossa Thaler & Knoflach, 1993
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius pallidus L. Koch, 1868
Range: Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Greece (Crete), Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia?, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southeastern Europe to Georgia (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius paon Thaler & Knoflach, 1993
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius pavesii Pesarini, 1991
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius pelops Thaler & Knoflach, 1991
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius phaeacus Thaler & Knoflach, 1998
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius ruffoi Thaler, 1990
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius scopolii Thorell, 1871
Range: France (Mainland), Greece (Crete)?, Greece (North Aegean Islands)?, Italy (Mainland), Portugal (Mainland), Spain (Mainland), Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius similis (Blackwall, 1861)
Description: Similar to A. fenestralis but larger. Size: Female 9-12 mm; male 6-8 mm. Maturity: Adult females can be encountered most of the year, while males are adult in autumn and winter. Habitat: Primarily holes in walls on the outside of buildings. Sometimes under stones and behind bark. Range: Andorra, Belgium, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Channel Islands), Great Britain (Mainland), Great Britain (Northern Ireland), Ireland, Italy (Sicily), Moldova, Netherlands, Norway (Mainland), Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European)?, Spain (Mainland), Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Female.
Male with only three eyes.
Male palps.
Amaurobius spominimus Taczanowski, 1866
Range: Poland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Poland (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius strandi Charitonov, 1937
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece, Bulgaria, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Amaurobius vachoni Hubert, 1965
Range: Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Arctobius Lehtinen, 1967
Arctobius agelenoides (Emerton, 1919)
Range: Finland, Norway (Mainland), Russia (Northern European), Sweden (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Holarctic (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Callobius Chamberlin, 1947
Callobius claustrarius (Hahn, 1833)
Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Corsica), France (Mainland), Germany, Greece (Crete)?, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia (Eastern European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Callobius claustrarius balcanicus (Drensky, 1940)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Coelotes Blackwall, 1841
Characters of genus: These are robust spiders with stout legs, rather wide head and sturdy chelicerae clearly visible from above. Members of this genus spin tubular retreats under stones, rottening stumps and other dead wood lying on the forest floor. A characteristic collar of silk is present at the entrance to the retreat.
Coelotes alpinus Polenec, 1972
Range: Austria, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Austria, Slovenia (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830)
Size: Female 9-12 mm; male 7-9 mm. Maturity: Autumn. Habitat: Same as C. terrestris. Range: Belarus, Belgium?, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Hungary, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Male.
Male.
Male.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female abdominal markings.
Female.
Coelotes atropos anomalus Hull, 1955
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Great Britain (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes atropos silvestris Hull, 1955
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Great Britain (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes ghigii Caporiacco, 1948 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes immaculatus O. P.-Cambridge, 1873 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Great Britain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: England (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes italicus Kritscher, 1956
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes mediocris Kulczynski, 1887
Range: Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Slovakia?, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes osellai de Blauwe, 1973
Range: France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pabulator Simon, 1875
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia, Slovenia?, Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France, Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pastor Simon, 1875
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pastor carpathensis Ovtchinnikov, 1999
Range: Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pastor cooremani de Blauwe, 1975
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pastor pickardi O. P.-Cambridge, 1873
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pastor pirinicus Drensky, 1942 (Nomen dubium)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes pastor tirolensis (Kulczynski, 1906)
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes poleneci Wiehle, 1964
Range: Austria, Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Slovenia (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes poweri Simon, 1875
Range: Bulgaria, France (Mainland), Italy (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes rudolfi (Schenkel, 1925)
Range: Italy (Mainland), Switzerland (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Switzerland (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes simoni Strand, 1907
Range: France (Mainland), Slovenia? (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: France (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes solitarius L. Koch, 1868
Range: Austria, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Romania, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes terrestris (Wider, 1834)
Description: Very similar to C. atropos and examination of the genitialia is needed to separate the species with certainity. Also quite similar to Amaurobius ferox which however is more bluish-black than thr dark greyish clour of C. terrestris. Size: Female 9-12 mm; male 7-9 mm. Maturity: Autumn. Habitat: Under stones, and dead tree roots and logs at the forest floor. Range: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France (Mainland), Germany, Great Britain (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (Mainland), Switzerland, Ukraine (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Palearctic (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Female.
Coelotes titaniacus Brignoli, 1977
Range: Greece (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Greece (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes turkestanicus Ovtchinnikov, 1999
Range: Russia (Eastern European) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Russia, Central Asia (Platnick 10.0).
Coelotes vallei Brignoli, 1977
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Eurocoelotes Wang, 2002
Eurocoelotes anoplus (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Austria, Croatia, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Austria, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes brevispinus (Deltshev & Dimitrov, 1996)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes deltshevi (Dimitrov, 1996)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes drenskii (Deltshev, 1990)
Range: Bulgaria (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes falciger (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Albania, Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, Ukraine?, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes gasperinii (Simon, 1891)
Range: Croatia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Croatia (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes inermis (L. Koch, 1855)
Range: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (Mainland), Germany, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central European)?, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Female.
Juvenile.
Juvenile.
Male.
Male.
Male abdominal markings.
Male.
Male.
Eurocoelotes jurinitschi (Drensky, 1915)
Range: Bulgaria, Greece (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes karlinskii (Kulczynski, 1906)
Range: Bosnia/Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Southeastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes kulczynskii (Drensky, 1915)
Range: Bulgaria, Romania (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Eurocoelotes microlepidus (de Blauwe, 1973)
Range: Bulgaria, Italy (Mainland), Macedonia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy, Bulgaria (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Pireneitega Kishida, 1955
Pireneitega garibaldii (Kritscher, 1969)
Range: Italy (Mainland), Italy (Sicily) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Pireneitega pyrenaea (Simon, 1870)
Range: Andorra, France (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Spain, France (Platnick 10.0).
Pireneitega segestriformis (Dufour, 1820)
Range: Andorra, Croatia, Estonia, France (Mainland), Greece (Mainland)?, Hungary, Italy (Mainland), Spain (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Europe, Russia (Platnick 10.0).
Genus: Urocoras Ovtchinnikov, 1999
Urocoras longispinus (Kulczynski, 1897)
Range: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Central, Eastern Europe (Platnick 10.0).
Urocoras matesianus (de Blauwe, 1973)
Range: Italy (Mainland) (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Italy (Platnick 10.0).
Urocoras munieri (Simon, 1880)
Range: Croatia, Italy (Mainland), Slovenia (van Helsdingen 2009.1). Global range: Slovenia, Croatia (Platnick 10.0).